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AT Kirtland the year began, as we have seen, with dark and gloomy prospects. After the departure of Joseph Smith we have but meager accounts of what was going on there, until the Seventies took measures to move in a body to Missouri. Soon afterward another company left Norton, Ohio.

Of these two companies Joseph Smith writes:-

"The Seventies assembled in the Lord's house in Kirtland on the sixth of March to devise the best means of removing their quorum to Missouri, according to the revelations; and on the tenth it was made manifest, by vision and prophecy, that they should go up in a camp, pitching their tents by the way.

"On the 13th they adopted a constitution and laws to govern them on their journey, which were soon signed by one hundred and seventy-five of the brethren.

"The privilege was given for anyone to go who did not belong to the Seventies, provided they would abide the constitution; and all the faithful who could improved the opportunity, for fearful sights and great signs were shown forth in and around Kirtland, clearly manifesting to the honest heart that God was not unmindful of his word, and that he would bring upon the place those judgments he had declared by his servants.

"Elders James Foster, Zerah Pulsipher, Joseph Young, Henry Herriman, Josiah Butterfield, Benjamin Wilber, and Elias Smith were commissioners to lead the camp, which was divided into companies of tens, with a captain over each.

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Elias Smith was chosen clerk and historian, and Jonathan H. Hale treasurer.

"On the 5th of July they met about a quarter of a mile south of the Lord's house and pitched their tents in form of a hollow square.

"On the 6th, at noon, they struck their tents and began to move toward the south, and in thirty minutes the whole camp was under motion, consisting of five hundred and fifteen souls-two hundred and forty-nine males, two hundred and sixty-six females, twenty-seven tents, fifty-nine wagons, ninety-seven horses, twenty-two oxen, sixty-nine cows, and one bull. Jonathan Dunham was engineer. The camp traveled to Chester, seven miles, the first day, and pitched their tents in the form of a hollow square formed by their wagons.

"This day I received a letter from Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde, dated at Kirtland, Ohio, expressive of their good feelings, firmness in the faith, prosperity, etc. Also another letter from my brother, as follows:-

"'Nine miles from Terre Haute, Indiana.

"'Brother Joseph:--I sit down to inform you of our situation at the present time. I started from Norton, Ohio, the 7th of May, in company with Father, William, Jenkins Salisbury, William McClary, and Lewis Robbins, and families, also Sister Singly. We started with fifteen horses, seven wagons, and two cows. We have left two horses by the way sick, and a third horse (as it were our dependence) was taken same last evening, and is not able to travel, and we have stopped to doctor him. We were disappointed on every hand before we started in getting money. We got no assistance whatever, only as we have taken in Sister Singly, and she has assisted us as far as her means extended. We had when we started $75.00 in money. We sold the two cows for $13.50 per cow. We have sold of your goods to the amount of $45.74, and now we have only $25.00 to carry twenty-eight souls and thirteen horses five hundred miles.

"'We have lived very close and camped out at night, notwithstanding the rain and cold, and my babe only two weeks

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old when we started. Agnes is very feeble; Father and Mother are not well and very much fatigued; Mother has a severe cold, and in fact it is nothing but the prayer of faith and the power of God that will sustain them and bring them through. Our courage is good, and I think we shall be brought through. I leave it with you and Hyrum to devise some way to assist us to some more expense money. We have unaccountable bad roads, had our horses down in the mud, and broke one wagon tongue and thills, and broke down the carriage twice; and yet we are all alive and encamped on a dry place for almost the first time. Poverty is a heavy load, but we are all obliged to welter under it.

"'It is now dark and I close. May the Lord bless you all and bring us together, is my prayer. Amen. All the arrangements that Brother Hyrum left for getting money failed; they did not gain us one cent.

"'Don C. Smith.'

"Saturday, 7th. The Kirtland camp moved forward to Aurora, thirteen miles, and encamped for the Sabbath.

"Sunday, 8th. There was some sickness in the camp. They held a public meeting, and the leaders informed them that the destroyer was in their midst, and some would fall victims unless they adhered strictly to the covenant they had made, laid aside all covetousness, and lived by every word that proceeded out of the mouth of the Lord. They were threatened this night with tar and feathers from the mob of the place, and were obliged to keep a close watch to keep their horses from being stolen by the mob, who threw a club and hit Elder Tyler on the breast."- Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 182, 183.

On July 10, while enroute, the Seventies' Camp adopted rules for the government of the camp. 1

1 1. The engineer shall receive advice from the counselors concerning his duties.
2. At four o'clock a. m. the horn shall blow for rising, and at twenty minutes past four for prayers, at which time each overseer shall see that the inmates of his tent are ready for worship.
3. The head of each division shall keep a roll of all his able-bodied men to stand guard in turn, as called for by the engineer; one half in the former, the other half in the latter part of the night.

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On Monday, July 16, while at Mansfield, Ohio, they were met by the sheriff, who produced warrants and arrested Josiah Butterfield, Jonathan Dunham, and Jonathan H. Hale, on charges connected with the failure of the "Kirtland Safety Society" Bank. They were lodged in jail in Mansfield, where they were kept until next day, when the jury failing to find bills against them they were discharged at one o'clock p. m. on the 17th, and overtook the camp the same night.

While in camp on the night of July 22, when about one hundred and eighty miles from Kirtland, they relate having seen a wonderful phenomenon: "Sometime during this night a luminous body, about the size of a cannon ball, came down over the encampment near the ground, then whirled around some forty or fifty times and moved off in a horizontal direction, passing out of sight."-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 203.

The company remained in camp the 24th of July, the women washing, while the men cleared seven acres of land, and reaped and bound three acres of wheat, for which they were paid nineteen dollars.

On August 8 they were yet in Ohio, many of them afflicted with diseases. Elders Dunham, Carter, Knight, Pettingill, Brown, and Perry continued all night in "rebuking diseases and foul spirits."

Sunday, August 12, the Seventies' Camp having fallen in with another camp from Canada, under charge of John E. Page, held services conjointly with them, when Elder Page addressed them.

On September 9 the camp had reached a point near the west line of Edgar County, Illinois, where on account of means getting scarce it was agreed that some would stop

4. Each company of the camp is entitled to an equal proportion of the milk, whether it owns the cows or not,
5. Thomas Butterfield shall be appointed herdsman, to drive the cows and stock and see that they are taken care of, and call for assistance when needed.
6. That in no case at present shall the camp move more than fifteen miles per day, unless circumstances absolutely require it.-Millennial Star, vol. 18, p. 184.

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and seek employment for the winter, but that the Seventies should go on and locate their families in Missouri and be ready to go out and preach the gospel. Nine or ten families therefore obtained places and stopped.

September 14,1838, the camp passed through Springfield, Illinois. Food was very scarce with them, which resulted in some suffering. 2

On the 20th they crossed the Mississippi River, at the town of Louisiana.

Joseph writes of the suffering and distress of the camp as follows:-

"Monday, 24th. The camp was called together and the council informed them of their scanty means, and that there had been a delinquency in consecrating their moneys and goods according to the pattern; that the council had hired large sums of money, for which they were bound, and liable to imprisonment in case of failure, and must wait on the brethren for their pay, and these sums had been expended for the benefit of the camp. They were required to bring forward their goods, which they did, and Elders B. Wilber and D. Carter went forward with the commissary's wagon to sell them.

"The camp went on, and passing through Madisonville (where they were assailed with all kinds of bugbear stories about the 'Mormons,' war, etc.), tented on the west side of the north branch of Salt River, on the encampment that Elder John E. Page had left on Saturday with his Canada Camp. The brethren were told that the Governor was just

2 The camp is sometimes short of food, both for man and beast, and they know what it is to be hungry. Their living for the last one hundred miles has been boiled corn and shaving pudding, which is made of new corn ears shaved upon a jointer or fore plane. It is excellent with milk, butter, or sweetening, and with an occasional mixture of pork, flour, potatoes, pumpkins, melons, etc., makes a comfortable living. The cobs and remaining corn are given to the horses, so that nothing is lost; hence the proverb goes forth in the world, "The Mormons would starve a host of enemies to death, for they will live where everybody else would die."
The camp numbers about two hundred and sixty. There were five hundred and fifteen, but they have been scattered to the four winds; and it is because of selfishness, covetousness, murmurings, and complainings, and not having fulfilled their covenants that they have been thus scattered.-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 267.

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ahead, with a military force, to stop them, to which they gave no heed."-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 295.

On account of rumors concerning the troubles in Far West and Adam-ondi-ahman, the camp was in doubt as to the advisability of going up in a body, some thinking it would be wiser to scatter and go up separately.

Of this Joseph writes:-

"Wednesday, 26th. This morning Elder James Foster, one of the counselors, proposed to the council to stop and break up the camp, on account of existing circumstances; so much excitement, so many moving west, and in large bodies too; it was wisdom for them to go to work, and provide for their families, until the difficulties should be settled, or they heard from Far West. Four of the seven counselors were present and three absent. Elder Young had stopped by the way. A silence prevailed. Shortly it was manifest that it was the desire of the camp collectively to go forward, notwithstanding their deference always to the will of the Lord through the council. Elder McArthur said, in a low tone, that it was his impression that we might go up in righteousness, keeping the commandments, and not be molested. Some others manifested the same, in concurrence with his feelings. Silence again. Here our faith was tried, and here the Lord looked down and beheld us, and lo, a gentleman who was directly from Far West and was returning to the East where he belonged, left his carriage and came among us, although we were a good distance from the road, and he told us that there was no trouble in Far West and Adam-ondi-ahman, but that we might go right along without danger of running into anybody's difficulties; and further, said he, 'The one hundred and ten volunteers are to be discharged this day at twelve o'clock, at Keytsville.' The council replied, 'We believe you, sir, and we thank you for your kindness.' A vote of the camp was called for, whether we should proceed, and instantly all hands were raised towards heaven!

"We pursued our journey, and in crossing a seven mile prairie we stopped in a hollow to bait the teams and herd, and here the volunteers passed us on their homeward bound

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passage, according to the man's word. One of the platoon officers said, as he passed us, 'Well, friends, we will let you go this time, but the next time we will give you the Devil up to the handle.' The bugler gave a blast and said, 'You'll soon reach the promised land, don't you hear Gabriel's trump?'"- Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 296.

The company from Canada under John E. Page arrived at De Witt during the last week of September, 1838.

The Seventies' Camp arrived at Far West, October 2. On the 3d they left Far West, arriving at their destination-Adam-ondi-ahman-on the 4th. The company under D. C. Smith arrived some time previous to this; the date we have not learned.

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