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THE great majority of the church was now in Missouri, where troublesome times awaited them.

As we have seen in a former chapter, that unholy crusade against the church, which has passed into history as "the Mormon war," began in the summer of 1838. We shall not take space to give all the details, but will give the leading events from the pens of participants, so that our readers can judge of the merits of the contention.

Adam Black, justice of the peace, who on August 8 had agreed to do all he could to promote peace in Daviess County, tried to stir up feeling against the church, contrary to his agreement. On August 28 he made the following affidavit

"State of Missouri,




"County of Daviess.


"Before me, William Dryden, one of the justices of the peace of said county, personally came Adam Black, who being duly sworn according to law, deposeth and saith; that on or about the 8th day of August, 1838, in the county of Daviess, there came an armed force of men, said to be one hundred and fifty-four, to the best of my information, and surrounded his house and family, and threatened him with instant death if he did not sign a certain instrument of writing, binding himself, as a justice of the peace for said county of Daviess, not to molest the people called Mormons; and threatened the lives of myself and other individuals, and did

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say they intended to make every citizen sign such obligation, and further said they intended to have satisfaction for abuse they had received on Monday previous, and they could not submit to the laws: and further saith, that from the best information and his own personal knowledge, that Andrew Ripley, George A. Smith, Ephraim Owens, Harvey Humstead, Hiram Nelson, A. Brown, John L. Butler, Cornelius Lott, John Wood, E. Redfield, Riley Stewart, James Whitaker, Andrew Thor, Amos Tubbs, Dr. Gourze, and Abram Nelson was guilty of aiding and abetting in committing and perpetrating the above offense.

"Adam Black.

"Sworn to and subscribed this the 28th of August, 1838.

"W. Dryden,

"Justice of the Peace of the county aforesaid."

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 243.

An item of history from Joseph Smith's pen, also his opinion of and determined action in these troubles, will be interesting. He writes:-

"There is great excitement at present among the Missourians, seeking if possible an occasion against us. They are continually chafing us and provoking us to anger, if possible-one sign of threatening after another; but we do not fear them, for the Lord God the Eternal Father is our God, and Jesus the Mediator is our Savior, and in the great I AM is our strength and confidence.

"We have been driven time after time, and that without cause, and smitten again and again, and that without provocation, until we have proved the world with kindness, and the world proved us that we have no designs against any man or set of men; that we injure no man; that we are peaceable with all men, minding our own business, and our business only. We have suffered our rights and our liberties to be taken from us; we have not avenged ourselves of those wrongs; we have appealed to magistrates, to sheriffs, to judges, to Government and to the President of the United States, all in vain; yet we have yielded peaceably to all these things. We have not complained at the great God; we murmured not, but peaceably left all, and retired into the back

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country, in the broad and wild prairie, in the barren and desolate plains, and there commenced anew; we made the desolate places to bud and blossom as the rose; and now the fiend-like race are disposed to give us no rest. Their father, the Devil, is hourly calling upon them to be up and doing, and they, like willing and obedient children, need not the second admonition; but in the name of Jesus Christ the Son of the living God we will endure it no longer, if the great God will arm us with courage, with strength and with power, to resist them in their persecutions. We will not act on the offensive, but always on the defensive; our rights and our liberties shall not be taken from us and we peaceably submit to it, as we have done heretofore; but we will avenge ourselves of our enemies, inasmuch as they will not let us alone.

"But to return again to our subject. We found the place for the city, and the brethren were instructed to gather immediately into it, and soon they should be organized according to the laws of God. A more particular history of this city may be expected hereafter, perhaps at its organization and dedication. We found a new route home, saving, I should think, three or four miles. We arrived at Far West about the close of daylight. . . .

"Sunday, 2d. . . . The First Presidency attended meeting as usual in the morning. I tarried at home in the evening to examine the church records, and spent a part of the time in company with a gentleman from Livingston County, who had become considerably excited on account of a large collection of people, as they said, to take Joseph Smith, Jr., and Lyman Wight for going to one Adam Black's in Daviess County; and as they said, President Smith and Colonel Wight had resisted the officer who had endeavored to take them, etc; and accordingly these men are assembling to take them, as they say. They are collected from every part of the country to Daviess County. Report says they are collecting from eleven counties, to help take two men who had never resisted the law or officer, neither thought of doing so, and this they knew at the same time, or many of them at least. This looks a little too much like mobocracy;

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it foretells some evil intentions. The whole upper Missouri is in an uproar and confusion.

"This evening I sent for General Atchison, of Liberty, Clay County, who is the Major General of this division, to come and counsel with us, and to see if he could not put a stop to this collection of people, and to put a stop to hostilities in Daviess County. I also sent a letter to Judge King containing a petition for him to assist in putting down and scattering the mob, which are collecting at Daviess.

"Monday, 3d. Nothing of importance transpired this day, only reports concerning the collection of a mob in Daviess County, which has been collecting ever since the election in Daviess on the sixth of August last. I was at home most of the day.

"This evening General Atchison arrived in Far West. . . .

"Tuesday, 4th. . . . This day I spent in council with General Atchison. He says he will do all in his power to disperse the mob, etc. We employed him and Doniphan (his partner) as our lawyers and counselors in law. They are considered the first lawyers in upper Missouri.

"President Rigdon and myself commenced this day the study of law, under the instruction of Generals Atchison and Doniphan. They think by diligent application we can be admitted to the bar in twelve months.

"The result of the council was that myself and Colonel Wight volunteer, and be tried by Judge King in Daviess County. Colonel Wight was present, having been previously notified to attend the council. Accordingly Thursday next was appointed for the trial, and word to that amount was sent to Judge King (who had previously agreed to volunteer and try the case) to meet all at Bro. Littlefield's, near the county line in the southern part of Daviess. I was at home in the evening after six o'clock.

"Wednesday, 5th. I gave the following affidavit, that the truth might appear before the public in the matter in controversy.

"State of Missouri,




"'Caldwell County,


"'Before me, Elias Higbee, one of the justices of the

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county court, within and for the county of Caldwell aforesaid, personally came Joseph Smith, Jr., who, being duly sworn according to law, deposeth and saith: That on the seventh day of August, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight, being informed that an affray had taken place in Daviess County, at the election in the town of Gallatin, in which two persons were killed, and one person was badly wounded, and fled to the woods to save his life; all of which were said to be persons belonging to the society of the Church of Latter Day Saints; and further, said informant stated that those persons who committed the outrage would not suffer the bodies of those who had been killed to be taken off the ground and buried.

"These reports with others, one of which was that the saints had not the privilege of voting at the polls as other citizens; another was that those opposed to the saints were determined to drive them from Daviess County, and also that they were arming and strengthening their forces and preparing for battle; and that the saints were preparing and making ready to stand in self-defense;-these reports having excited the feelings of the citizens of Far West and vicinity, I was invited by Dr. Avard and some others to go out to Daviess County to the scene of these outrages; they having previously determined to go out and learn the facts concerning said reports.

"Accordingly some of the citizens, myself among the number, went out, two, three, and four, in companies, as they got ready. The reports and excitement continued until several of those small companies through the day were induced to follow the first, who were all eager to learn the facts concerning this matter. We arrived in the evening at the house of Lyman Wight, about three miles from Gallatin, the scene of the reported outrages. Here we learned the truth concerning the said affray, which had been considerably exaggerated, yet there had been a serious outrage committed. We there learned that the mob was collected at Millport, to a considerable number; that Adam Black was at their head; and were to attack the saints the next day, at the place we then were, called Adam-ondi-ahman. This report

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we were still inclined to believe might be true, as this Adam Black, who was said to be their leader, had been but a few months before engaged in endeavoring to drive those of the society who had settled in that vicinity, from the county. This had become notorious from the fact that said Black had personally ordered several of said society to leave the county.

"'The next morning we dispatched a committee to said Black's to ascertain the truth of these reports, and to know what his intentions were; and as we understood he was a peace officer, we wished to know what we might expect from him. They reported that Mr. Black instead of giving them any assurance of peace, insulted them and gave them no satisfaction. Being desirous of knowing the feelings of Mr. Black for myself, and being in want of good water, and understanding that there was none nearer than Mr. Black's spring, myself with several others mounted our horses and rode up to Mr. Black's fence.

"'Dr. Avard, with one or two others who had rode ahead, went into Mr. Black's house; myself and some others went to the spring for water. I was shortly after sent for by Mr. Black, and invited into the house, being introduced to Mr. Black by Dr. Avard. Mr. Black wished me to be seated. We then commenced a conversation on the subject of the late difficulties and present excitement. I found Mr. Black quite hostile in his feelings towards the saints; but he assured us he did not belong to the mob, neither would he take any part with them; but said he was bound by his oath to support the Constitution of the United States and the laws of the State of Missouri. Deponent then asked him if he would make said statement in writing so as to refute the arguments of those who had affirmed that he (Black) was one of the leaders of the mob. Mr. Black answered in the affirmative. Accordingly he did so, which writing is in possession of the deponent. The deponent further saith that no violence was offered to any individual in his presence or within his knowledge; and that no insulting language was given by either party, except on the part of Mrs. Black, who, while Mr. Black was engaged in making out the above-named

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writing (which he made with his own hand), gave to this deponent and others of this society highly insulting language and false accusations, which were calculated in their nature to greatly irritate, if possible, the feelings of the bystanders belonging to said society, in language like this; Being asked by the deponent if she knew anything in the "Mormon" people derogatory to the character of gentlemen, she answered in the negative, but said she did not know but the object of their visit was to steal something from them. After Mr. Black had executed the writing deponent asked Mr. Black if he had any unfriendly feelings towards the deponent, and if he had not treated him genteelly. He answered in the affirmative. Deponent then took leave of said Black and repaired to the house of Lyman Wight. The next day we returned to Far West, and further this deponent saith not.

"'Joseph Smith, Jr.

"'Sworn to and subscribed, this fifth day of September, A. D. 1838.

"'Elias Higbee, J. C. C. C. C.'

"Judge King arrived at Far West on his way to Daviess to meet the proposed trial. General Atchison had gone before Judge King arrived, and the Judge tarried all night. I was at home after six o'clock in the evening. . . .

"Thursday, 6th. . . . At half past seven this morning I started on horseback, accompanied by several brethren, among whom were my brother Hyrum and Judge E. Higbee, to attend my trial at Brother Littlefield's. I thought it not wisdom to make my appearance before the public in that place, in consequence of the many threats made against me, and the high state of excitement. The trial could not proceed on account of the absence of the plaintiff and lack of testimony, and the court adjourned until to-morrow at ten o'clock in the morning, at a Mr. Raglin's, some six or eight miles further south, and within half a mile of the line of Caldwell. Raglin is a regular mob character. We all returned to Far West, where we arrived before dark.

"Friday, 7th. About sunrise I started with my friends, and arrived at Mr. Raglin's at the appointed hour. We did

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not know but there would be a disturbance among the mob characters to-day; we accordingly had a company of men placed at the county line, so as to be ready at a minute's warning, if there should be any difficulty at the trial.

"The trial commenced. William P. Peniston, who was the prosecutor, had no witnesses but Adam Black, who contrived to swear a great many things that never had an existence until he swore them, and I presume never entered the heart of any man to conceive; and in fine, I think he swore by the job, and that he was employed so to do by Peniston.

"The witnesses on the part of the defense were Dimick B. Huntington, Gideon Carter, Adam Lightner, and George W. Robinson.

"The Judge bound Colonel Wight and myself over to court in a five hundred dollar bond. There was no proof against us to criminate us, but it is supposed he did it to pacify as much as possible the feelings of the mobbers. The Judge stated afterwards, in the presence of George W. Robinson, that there was nothing proven against us worthy of bonds; but we submitted without murmuring a word, gave the bonds with sufficient securities, and all returned home the same evening.

"We found two persons in Daviess at the trial, which gentlemen were sent from Chariton County as a committee to inquire into all this matter, as the mobbers had sent to that place for assistance, they said to take Smith and Wight; but their object was to drive the brethren from the county of Daviess, as was done in Jackson County. They said the people in Chariton did not see proper to send help without knowing for what purpose they were doing it, and this they said was their errand. They accompanied us to Far West to hold a council with us, in order to learn the facts of this great excitement, which is, as it were, turning the world upside down. We arrived home in the evening. . . .

"Saturday, 8th. . . . The Presidency met in council with the committee from Chariton County, together with General Atchison, where a relation was given of the whole matter, the present state of excitement, and the cause of all this

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confusion. These gentlemen expressed their fullest satisfaction upon the subject, considering they had been outrageously imposed upon in this matter. They left this afternoon, apparently perfectly satisfied with the interview."-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 244-248, 266.

After this there was much excitement and some skirmishing. There were rumors afloat and widely circulated damaging to both parties. It is quite impossible to learn the exact truth of these details.

Early in September, upon information that there was a wagonload of firearms being transported from Richmond, Missouri, to the mob in Daviess County, the civil authorities of Far West concluded to intercept them as they passed through Caldwell County; accordingly they issued a writ and intrusted it in the hands of William Allred, who with ten mounted men succeeded in capturing the guns, and three men supposed to be the smugglers, whose names were J. B. Comer, W. L. McHoney, and Allen Miller, and brought prisoners and guns to Far West.

The three men were tried on September 12, 1838, when they were held to bail for their appearance at the circuit court; Comer for an attempt to smuggle arms to a mob, the other men as accomplices.

Both parties petitioned the Governor; the saints asking for protection, and the mob asking that all Mormons be driven from the State.

On September 11, General Atchison ordered the militia to march "immediately to the scene of excitement and insurrection."

The following report of General Doniphan will show how promptly this order was complied with, and also show the respective dispositions manifested by the commanders of the two hostile forces:-

"Headquarters, 1st Brigade, 3d Division Missouri Militia.

"Camp at Grand River, September 15, 1838.

"Major General David R. Atchison, Commanding 3d Division Missouri Militia; Sir:-In pursuance of your orders, dated 11th instant, I issued orders to Colonel William A. Dunn,

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commanding the 28th regiment, to raise four companies of mounted riflemen, consisting of fifty men each; also to Colonel John Boulware, commanding 70th regiment, to raise two companies of mounted riflemen, consisting each of like number, to start forthwith for service in the counties of Caldwell and Daviess.

"On the same day Colonel Dunn obtained the four companies of volunteers required from the 28th regiment, and on the morning of the 12th I took the command in person, and marched to the line of Caldwell, at which point I ordered the colonels to march the regiments to the timber on Crooked River. I then started for Far West, the county seat of Caldwell, accompanied by my aid alone.

"On arriving at that place, I found Comer, Miller, and McHoney, the prisoners mentioned in your order. I demanded of the guard who had them in confinement to deliver them over to me, which was promptly done. I also found that the guns that had been captured by the sheriff and citizens of Caldwell had been distributed and placed in the hands of the soldiery and scattered over the country; I ordered them to be immediately collected and delivered up to me. I then sent an express to Colonel Dunn to march the regiment by daylight for that place, where he arrived about seven a. m., making forty miles since ten o'clock a. m. on the previous day.

"When my command arrived the guns were delivered up, amounting to forty-two stand; three stand could not be produced, as they had probably gone to Daviess County. I sent these guns under a guard to your command in Ray County, together with the prisoner Comer; the other two being citizens of Daviess, I retained, and brought with me to this county, and released them on parole of honor, as I conceived their detention illegal.

"At eight o'clock a. m. we took up the line of march and proceeded through Millport in Daviess County, thirty-seven miles from our former encampment, and arrived at the camp of the citizens of Daviess and other adjoining counties, which amounted to between two and three hundred, as their commander, Dr. Austin, of Carroll, informed me. Your

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order requiring them to disperse, which had been forwarded in advance of my command, by your aid, James M. Hughes, was read to them, and they were required to disperse. They professed that their object for arming and collecting was solely for defense, but they were marching and countermarching guards out; and myself and others who approached the camp were taken to task and required to wait the approach of the sergeant of the guard. I had an interview with Dr. Austin, and his professions were all pacific. But they still continue in arms, marching and countermarching.

"I then proceeded with your aid, J. M. Hughes, and my aid, Benjamin Holliday, to the Mormon encampment commanded by Colonel Wight. We held a conference with him, and he professed entire willingness to disband, and surrender up to me every one of the Mormons accused of crime, and required in return that the hostile forces, collected by the other citizens of the county, should also disband. At the camp commanded by Dr. Austin I demanded the prisoner demanded in your order, who had been released on the evening after my arrival in their vicinity.

"I took up line of march and encamped in the direct road between the two hostile encampments, where I have remained since, within about two and a half miles of Wight's encampment, and sometimes the other camp is nearer, and sometimes farther from me. I intend to occupy this position until your arrival, as I deem it best to preserve peace and prevent an engagement between the parties, and if kept so for a few days they will doubtless disband without coercion. I have the honor to be, yours with respect,


"Brig. General 1st Brigade, 3d Division Missouri Militia."

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 268, 269.

Subsequently Major General Atchison arrived, and his report to Governor Boggs, the commander in chief, will show his view of the situation:-

"Headquarters 3d Division Missouri Militia,

"Grand River, September 17, 1838.

"To His Excellency, the Commander in Chief; Sir:-I arrived

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at the County seat of this county, Daviess, on the evening of the 15th instant, with the troops raised from the militia of Ray County, when I was joined by the troops from Clay County under the command of General Doniphan. In the same neighborhood I found from two to three hundred men in arms, principally from the counties of Livingston, Carroll, and Saline. These men were embodied under the pretext of defending the citizens of Daviess County against the Mormons, and were operating under the orders of a Dr. Austin from Carroll County. The citizens of Daviess, or a large portion of them, residing on each side of Grand River, had left their farms and removed their families either to the adjoining counties or collected them together at a place called the Camp Ground. The whole county on the east side of Grand River appears to be deserted, with the exception of a few who are not so timid as their neighbors. The Mormons of Daviess County have also left their farms, and have encamped for safety at a place immediately on the east bank of Grand River, called Adam-ondi-ahman. The numbers are supposed to be about two hundred and fifty men, citizens of Daviess County, and from fifty to one hundred men, citizens of Caldwell County. Both parties have been scouting through the country, and occasionally taking prisoners, and threatening and insulting each other; but as yet no blood has been shed. I have ordered all armed men from adjoining counties to repair to their homes; the Livingston County men and others to the amount of one hundred men, have returned, and there remain now about one hundred and fifty who will, I am in hopes, return in a few days. I have been informed by the Mormons, that all of those who have been charged with a violation of the laws will be in to-day for trial; when that is done the troops under my command will be no longer required in this county, if the citizens of other counties will return to their respective homes. I have proposed to leave two companies of fifty men each in this county, and discharge the remainder of the troops; said two companies will remain for the preservation of order, until peace and confidence are restored. I also inclose to your Excellency the report of General

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Doniphan, and refer you for particulars to Major Rogers.

"I have the honor to be your obedient servant,


"Major General 3d Division Missouri Militia."

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 282, 283.

On the 18th Governor Boggs, undoubtedly considering the force under Atchison too small, or considering the General too pacific in his measures, ordered the fourth division, under General S. D. Lucas, to the scene of trouble, there to coöperate with the forces under General Atchison. General Atchison again reported to the Governor as follows:-

"Sir:-The troops ordered out for the purpose of putting down the insurrection supposed to exist in the counties of Daviess and Caldwell were discharged on the 20th instant, with the exception of two companies of the Ray militia, now stationed in the county of Daviess, under the command of Brigadier General Parks. It was deemed necessary in the state of excitement in that county that those companies should remain there for a short period longer, say some twenty days, until confidence and tranquillity should be restored. All the offenders against the law in that county, against whom process was taken out, were arrested and brought before a court of inquiry, and recognized to appear at the circuit court. Mr. Thomas C. Birch attended to the prosecuting on the part of the State. The citizens of other counties who came in armed to the assistance of the citizens of Daviess County, have dispersed and returned to their respective homes, and the Mormons have also returned to their homes; so that I consider the insurrection, for the present at least, to be at an end. From the best information I can get there are about two hundred and fifty Mormon families in Daviess County, nearly one half of the population, and the whole of the Mormon forces in Daviess, Caldwell, and the adjoining counties, is estimated at from thirteen to fifteen hundred men, capable of bearing arms. The Mormons of Daviess County, as I stated in a former report, were encamped in a town called Adam-ondi-ahman, and are headed by Lyman Wight, a bold, brave, skillful, and I may add, a desperate man; they appear to be acting on the defensive,

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and I must further add, gave up the offenders with a good deal of promptness. The arms taken by the Mormons, and prisoners, were also given up upon demand, with seeming cheerfulness."-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 294.

After all this it seems to us that Governor Boggs was guilty of maliciously fostering the spirit of insurrection, and striving to provoke the Mormons to deeds of violence by sending their old Jackson County enemy, S. D. Lucas, to the scene, at the head of an armed force, when there was no reasonable demand for it. But we leave these facts with the reader.

On September 25 General Parks, who was left in command, wrote the Governor, as follows:-

"Whatever may have been the disposition of the people called Mormons, before our arrival here, since we have made our appearance they have shown no disposition to resist the laws, or of hostile intentions. There has been so much prejudice and exaggeration concerned in this matter, that I found things entirely different from what I was prepared to expect. When we arrived here we found a large body of men from the counties adjoining, armed and in the field for the purpose, as I learned, of assisting the people of this county against the Mormons, without being called out by the proper authorities.

"P. S.-Since writing the above, I received information that if the committee do not agree, the determination of the Daviess County men is to drive the Mormons with powder and lead."-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 295.

He also wrote General Atchison on the same date, thus:-

"I am happy to be able to state to you that the deep excitement existing between the parties has in a great degree ceased; and so far I have had no occasion to resort to force in assisting the constables. On to-morrow a committee from Daviess County meets a committee of the Mormons at Adam-ondi-ahman, to propose to them to buy or sell, and I expect to be there. 1"-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 295.

1 The mob committee met a committee of the brethren, and the brethren entered into an agreement to purchase all the lands and possessions of those who desired to sell and leave Daviess County.-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 295.

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The forces dispersed by order of General Atchison in Daviess and Caldwell Counties, or many of them, instead of going quietly to their homes as instructed to do, proceeded to De Witt, Carroll County, and began hostilities against the saints there.

The following petition will show the condition of affairs:-

"DE WITT, Carroll County, State of Missouri,

"September 22, 1838.

"To His Excellency, Lilburn W. Boggs, Governor of the State of Missouri:-Your petitioners, citizens of the county of Carroll, do hereby petition Your Excellency, praying for relief: That whereas, your petitioners have on the 20th instant been sorely aggrieved by being beset by a lawless mob, [of] certain inhabitants of this and other counties, to the injury of the good citizens of this and the adjacent places; that on the aforesaid day came from one hundred to one hundred and fifty armed men, and threatened with force and violence to drive certain peaceable citizens from their homes, in defiance of all law, and threatened then to drive said citizens out of the county, but on deliberation concluded to give them, said citizens, till the first of October next to leave said county; and threatened, if not gone by that time, to exterminate them, without regard to age or sex, and destroy their chattels by throwing them in the river.

"We therefore pray you to take such steps as shall put a stop to all lawless proceeding; and we your petitioners will ever pray, etc.

"Benj. Kendrick.

Smith Humphrey.

Franklin N. Thayer.

"H. G. Sherwood.

John Tilford.

Dudley Thomas.

"John Kendrick.

Wm. P. Lundow.

John Murdock.

"James Valance.

G. M. Hinkle.

Thos. Dehart.

"Albert Loree.

Francis Brown.

Jabez Lake.

"D. Thomas

H. M. Wallace.

Samuel Lake.

(no Mormon).

Asu Manchester.

Wm. Winston

"Nathan Harrison.

John Clark.

Elizabeth Smith.

"Thos. Hollingshead.

Henry Root.

Asa W. Barnes

"A. L. Caldwell.

Elijah T. Rogers.

Rufus Allen.

"John Dougherty.

Ezekiel Barnes.

Moses Harris.

"D. H. Barns.

Perry Thayer.

Wm. S. Smith.

"B. B. Bartley.

James Hampton.

Jonathan Harris.

"Robert Hampton.

Wm. J. Hatfield.

Jonathan Hampton.

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"Oliver Olney.

George Peacock.

John Thorp.

"Daniel Clark.

H. T. Chipman.

John Proctor.

"David Dixon.

James McGuin.

Benj. Hensley."

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 294, 295.

On Tuesday, October 2,1838, a mob fired on the saints in De Witt. The following affidavit was sent to General Parks, and was forwarded to General Atchison with the accompanying note:-

"Dear Sir:-I received this morning an affidavit from Carroll County. The following is a copy: 'Henry Root, on his oath, states, that on the night of the first of October there was collected in the vicinity of De Witt an armed force, consisting of from thirty to fifty persons, and on the morning of the second of October came into the town of De Witt and fired on the civil inhabitants of that place. Thirteen of said individuals were seen by me in that place, and I believe there is actually an insurrection in that place.


"'Subscribed and sworn to this 3d day of October, 1838.


"In consequence of which information, and belief of an attack being made on said place, I have ordered out the two companies raised by your order, to be held in readiness under the commands of Captains Bogart and Houston, to march for De Witt, in Carroll County, by eight o'clock tomorrow morning, armed and equipped as the law directs, with six days provisions and fifty rounds of powder and ball. I will proceed with these troops in person, leaving Colonel Thompson in command on Grand River. As soon as I reach De Witt I will advise you of the state of affairs more fully. I will use all due precaution in the affair, and deeply regret the necessity of this recourse.

"H. G. Parks,

"Brigadier-General 2d Brigade, 3d Division."

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 318.

On the 4th the mob again fired on the citizens of De Witt, and they returned the fire, which furnished an excuse for the too anxious General Lucas to offer his willing services. He wrote the Governor as follows:-

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"Boonville, Missouri, October 4,1838.

"Dear Sir-As we passed down the Missouri River on Monday last, we saw a large force of Mormons at De Witt, in Carroll County, under arms. Their commander, Colonel Hinkle, formerly of Caldwell County, informed me that there were two hundred, and that they were hourly expecting an attack from the citizens of Carroll County, who he said were then encamped only six miles from there, waiting for a reinforcement from Saline County. Hinkle said they had determined to fight. News had just been received at this place, through Dr. Scott, of Fayette, that a fight took place on yesterday, and that several persons were killed. Dr. Scott informed me that he got his information from a gentleman of respectability, who had heard the firing of their guns as he passed down. If a fight has actually taken place, of which I have no doubt, it will create excitement in the whole of upper Missouri, and those base and degraded beings will be exterminated from the face of the earth. If one of the citizens of Carroll should be killed, before five days I believe that there will be from four to five thousand volunteers in the field against the Mormons, and nothing but their blood will satisfy them. It is an unpleasant state of affairs. The remedy I do not pretend to suggest to your Excellency. My troops of the fourth division were only dismissed, subject to further orders, and can be called into the field at an hour's warning.

"Samuel D. Lucas."

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 318.

The comment of Joseph Smith on this letter is so appropriate that we give it place:-

"'Base and degraded beings!' Who ever heard, before, of high-minded and honorable men condescending to sacrifice their honor by stooping to wage war, without cause or provocation, against 'base and degraded beings.' But General Lucas is ready with his whole division, at an 'hour's warning,' to enter the field of battle on such degrading terms, if his own statement is true. But Lucas knew better. He knew the saints were an innocent, unoffending people, and would not fight, only in self-defense, and why write such a

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letter to the Governor to influence his mind? Why not keep truth and justice on your side, poor Lucas? The annals of eternity will unfold to you who are the 'base beings,' and what it will take to 'satisfy' for the shedding of 'Mormon blood.'"-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 318.

Joseph Smith went to De Witt, and the following is his account of the situation:-

"Saturday, 6th. I arrived at De Witt, and found that the accounts of the situation of that place were correct; for it was with much difficulty, and by traveling unfrequented roads, that I was able to get there, all the principal roads being strongly guarded by the mob, who refused all ingress as well as egress. I found my brethren, who were only a handful in comparison to the mob by which they were surrounded, in this situation, and their provisions nearly exhausted and no prospect of obtaining any more. We thought it necessary to send immediately to the Governor to inform him of the circumstances, hoping from the executive to raise the protection which we needed; and which was guaranteed to us in common with other citizens. Several gentlemen of standing and respectability who lived in the immediate vicinity, who were not in any way connected with the Church of Latter Day Saints, who had witnessed the proceedings of our enemies, came forward and made affidavits to the treatment we had, received, and concerning our perilous situation; and offered their services to go and present the case to the Governor themselves."-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 342.

About the 6th of October General Parks wrote General Atchison concerning affairs at De Witt, as follows:-

"Sir:-Immediately after my express to you by Mr. Warder was sent, I proceeded to this place, which I reached yesterday, with two companies of mounted men from Ray. I ordered Colonel Jones to call out three companies from this county to hold themselves in readiness to join me at Carrollton on the 5th instant, which order has not been carried into effect. None of Carroll regiment is with me.

"On arriving in the vicinity of De Witt I found a body of

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armed men under the command of Dr. Austin, 2 encamped near De Witt, besieging that place, to the number of two or three hundred, with a piece of artillery ready to attack the town of De Witt. On the other side Hinkle has in that place three or four hundred Mormons to defend it, and says he will die before he is driven from thence.

"On the 4th instant they had a skirmish-fifteen or thirty guns fired on both sides, one man from Saline wounded in the hip.

"The Mormons are at this time too strong, and no attack is expected before Wednesday or Thursday next, at which time Dr. Austin hopes his forces will amount to five hundred men, when he will make a second attempt on the town of De Witt, with small arms and cannon. In this posture of affairs I can do nothing but negotiate between the parties until further aid is sent me.

"I received your friendly letter on the 5th instant, by Mr. Warder, authorizing me to call on General Doniphan, which call I have made on him for five companies from Platte, Clay, and Clinton, with two companies I ordered from Livingston, of which I doubt whether these last will come; if they do, I think I will have a force sufficient to manage these belligerents. Should these troops arrive here in time, I hope to be able to prevent bloodshed. Nothing seems so much in demand here (to hear the Carroll County men talk) as Mormon scalps; as yet they are scarce. I believe Hinkle with the present force and position will beat Austin with five hundred of his troops. The Mormons say they will die before they will be driven out, etc. As yet they have acted on the defensive as far as I can learn. It is my settled opinion the Mormons will have no rest until they leave; whether they will or not, time only can tell.

"H. G. PARKS."

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 375.

Joseph's account of the surrender of De Witt and the suffering there is as follows:-

"Under the same date, from the camp near De Witt,

2 The same who led the mob in Daviess County.

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eleven bloodthirsty fellows; viz., Congreve Jackson, Larkin H. Woods, Thomas Jackson, Rolla M. Davies, James Jackson, Jr., Johnson Jackson, John L. Tomlin, Sidney S. Woods, George Crigler, W. L. Banks, and Whitfield Dicken, wrote a most inflammatory, lying, and murderous communication to the citizens of Howard County, calling upon them as friends and fellow citizens to come to their immediate rescue, as the 'Mormons' were then firing upon them, and they would have to act on the defensive until they could procure more assistance.

"A. C. Woods, a citizen of Howard County, made a certificate to the same lies, which he gathered in the mob camp; he did not go into De Witt, or take any trouble to learn the truth of what he certified. While the people will lie and the authorities will uphold them, what justice can honest men expect?

"Tuesday, 9th. General Clark wrote the Governor, from Boonville, that the names subscribed to the inclosed [enclosed] paper (as before-stated, 7th instant) are worthy, prudent, and patriotic citizens of Howard County; men who would leave their families and everything dear, and go to a foreign county to seek the blood of innocent men, women, and children! If this constitute 'worth, prudence, and patriotism,' let me be worthless, imprudent, and unpatriotic.

"The messenger, Mr. Caldwell, who had been dispatched to the Governor for assistance, returned, but instead of receiving any aid or even sympathy from his Excellency, we were told that 'the quarrel was between the Mormons and the mob,' and that 'we might fight it out.'

"About this time a mob commanded by Hyrum Standly took Smith Humphrey's goods out of his house, and said Standly set fire to Humphrey's house and burned it before his eyes, and ordered him to leave the place forthwith, which he did by fleeing from De Witt to Caldwell County. The mob had sent to Jackson County and got a cannon, powder, and balls, and bodies of armed men had gathered in to aid them from Ray, Saline, Howard, Livingston, Clinton, Clay, Platte, and other parts of the State, and a man by the name of Jackson from Howard County was appointed their leader.

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"The saints were forbid to go out of the town, under pain of death, and were shot at when they attempted to go out to get food, of which they were destitute. As fast as their cattle, horses, or other property got where the mob could get hold of it, it was taken as spoil. By these outrages the brethren were obliged, most of them, to live in wagons or tents. . . .

"General Parks informed us that a greater part of his men under Captain Bogart had mutinied, and that he should be obliged to draw them off from the place, for fear they would join the mob; consequently he could offer us no assistance.

"We had now no hopes whatever of successfully resisting the mob, who kept constantly increasing; our provisions were entirely exhausted, and we being wearied out by continually standing on guard, and watching the movements of our enemies, who during the time I was there fired at us a great many times. Some of the brethren died for the common necessaries of life, and perished from starvation; and for once in my life I had the pain of beholding some of my fellow creatures fall victims to the spirit of persecution, which did then and has since prevailed to such an extent in upper Missouri; men, too, who were virtuous, and against whom no legal process could for one moment be sustained, but who in consequence of their love to God, attachment to his cause, and their determination to keep the faith, were thus brought to an untimely grave.

"In the meantime Henry Root and David Thomas, who had been the sole cause of the settlement being made, solicited the saints to leave the place. Thomas said he had assurances from the mob that if they would leave the place they would not be hurt, and that they would be paid for all losses which they had sustained, and that they had come as mediators to accomplish this object, and that persons should be appointed to set value on the property which they had to leave, and that they should be paid for it. They finally, through necessity, had to comply and leave the place. Accordingly the committee was appointed-Judge Erichson was one of the committee, and

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Major Florey, of Butsville, another; the names of the others not recollected. They appraised the real estate; that was all.

"When the people came to start, their horses, oxen, and cows were gone, many of them, and could not be found; it was known at the time, and the mob boasted of it, that they had killed the oxen and lived on them. A great number of cows, oxen, and horses have never been seen since, which doubtless the mob took and kept, and that was all the brethren ever received of the promised pay for all their losses at De Witt. Many houses belonging to my brethren were burned, their cattle driven away, and a great quantity of their property was destroyed by the mob.

"Seeing no prospect of relief, the Governor having turned a deaf ear to our entreaties, the militia having mutinied, and the greater part of them being ready to join the mob, the brethren came to the conclusion to leave that place and seek a shelter elsewhere; and gathering up as many wagons as could be got ready, which was about seventy, with a remnant of the property they had been able to save from their matchless foes, left De Witt and started for Caldwell on the afternoon of Thursday, October 11, 1838. They traveled that day about twelve miles and encamped in a grove of timber near the road.

"That evening a woman who had some short time before given birth to a child (in consequence of the exposure occasioned by the operations of the mob, and having to move her before her strength would admit), died, and was buried in the grove, without a coffin.

"During our journey we were continually harassed and threatened by the mob, who shot at us several times, whilst several of our brethren died from the fatigue and privations which they had to endure, and we had to inter them by the wayside, without a coffin, and under circumstances the most distressing. We arrived in Caldwell on the twelfth.

"No sooner had the brethren left De Witt than Sashiel Woods called the mob together and made a speech to them, that they must hasten to assist their friends in Daviess County. The land sales, he said, were coming on, and if

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they could get the Mormons driven out, they could get all the lands entitled to preëmptions, and that they must hasten to Daviess in order to accomplish their object; that if they would join and drive them out they could get all the lands back again, as well as all the pay they had received for them. He assured the mob that they had nothing to fear from the authorities in so doing, for they had now full proof that the authorities would not assist the Mormons, and that they might as well take their property from them as not. His request was complied with, and accordingly the whole banditti started, taking with them their cannon, for Daviess County.

"In the meantime Cornelius Gillium was busily engaged in raising a mob in Platt and Clinton counties, to aid Woods in his effort to drive peaceable citizens from their homes and take their property.

"On my arrival in Caldwell I was informed by General Doniphan, of Clay County, that a company of mobbers eight hundred strong were marching toward a settlement of our people in Daviess County. He ordered out one of the officers to raise a force and march immediately to what he called Wight's Town, and defend our people from the attacks of the mob, until he should raise the militia in his and the adjoining counties to put them down. A small company of militia, who were on their route to Daviess County, and who had passed through Far West, he ordered back again, stating that they were not to be depended upon, as many of them were disposed to join the mob, and, to use his own expression, were 'damned rotten-hearted.'"-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 375, 376, 394, 395.

The History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties has this to say about the De Witt trouble:-

"Troubles thickened and multiplied. Down in Carroll County the citizens, under Col. W. W. Austin, attempted the expulsion of the six hundred Mormons at De Witt, under Hinkle. At the August election a vote was taken to decide whether or not they should be allowed to remain, and it was practically unanimous that they should not. In time the citizens were reinforced by their neighbors from Ray, Clay,

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Jackson, Saline, Howard, and Chariton, and De Witt was regularly besieged for two or three days. Congreve Jackson was elected a brigadier-general commanding the forces. September 21, the Mormons (who in the meantime had been reinforced by a company from Far West, led by Col. Lyman Wight 3) surrendered and agreed to leave the county. The citizens paid them back the money they had given for the town site, 4 allowing nothing for building or other improvements, and the Mormons, wretched and miserable, and stripped of nearly all their earthly possessions, left for Caldwell County, many families, even women and children, making the journey on foot."-Page 129.

Thus ended the trouble in Carroll County, but the mob, not satisfied, returned to Daviess County, determined to despoil the Mormons.

3 This is a mistake. Lyman Wight was not at De Witt.
4 This is doubtful.

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