Previous chapter Previous chapter Table of Contents Table of Contents Next chapter Next chapter



THE opening of the year 1838 can best be told in the language of Joseph Smith. He writes:-

"A new year dawned upon the church in Kirtland in all the bitterness of the spirit of apostate mobocracy; which continued to rage and grow hotter and hotter, until Elder Rigdon and myself were obliged to flee from its deadly influence, as did the apostles and prophets of old, and as Jesus said, 'When they persecute you in one city, flee to another.' And on the evening of the 12th of January, about ten o'clock, we left Kirtland, on horseback, to escape mob violence, which was about to burst upon us under the color of legal process to cover their hellish designs and save themselves from the just judgment of the law. We continued our travels during the night, and at eight o'clock on the morning of the 13th arrived among the brethren in Norton Township, Medina County, Ohio, a distance of eighty miles from Kirtland; where we tarried about thirty-six hours, when our families arrived, and on the 16th pursued our journey with our families, in covered wagons, toward the city of Far West, in Missouri; passing through Dayton, Eaton, etc., to Dublin, Indiana, where we tarried nine days and refreshed ourselves.

"The weather was extremely cold, and we were obliged to

(page 136)


secrete ourselves in our wagons sometimes, to elude the grasp of our pursuers, who continued their race more than two hundred miles from Kirtland, armed with pistols, etc., seeking our lives. They frequently crossed our track; twice they were in the houses where we stopped; once we tarried all night in the same house with them, with only a partition between us and them, and heard their oaths and imprecations and threats concerning us, if they could catch us; and late in the evening they came in our room and examined us, but decided we were not the men. At other times we passed them in the streets, and gazed upon them, and they on us; but they knew us not. One Lyons was one of our pursuers.

"I parted with Brother Rigdon at Dublin, and traveling different routes we met at Terre Haute, where, after resting we separated again, and I pursued my journey, crossing the Mississippi River at Quincy, Illinois. . . .

"When I had arrived within one hundred and twenty miles of Far West the brethren met me with the teams and money to help me forward; and when eight miles from the city we were met by an escort; viz., Thomas B. Marsh and others, who received us with open arms; and on the 13th of March I with my family and some others put up at Brother Barnards' for the night. Here we were met by an escort of the brethren from the town, who came to make us welcome to their little Zion.

"On the 14th as we were about entering Far West, many of the brethren came out to meet us, who also with open arms welcomed us to their bosoms. We were immediately received under the hospitable roof of Brother George W. Harris, who treated us with all possible kindness; and we refreshed ourselves with much satisfaction after our long and tedious journey, the brethren bringing in such things as we had need of for our comfort and convenience.

"After being here two or three days my brother Samuel arrived with his family.

"Shortly after his arrival, while walking with him and certain other brethren, the following sentiments occurred to my mind:-

"Motto of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

(page 137)


"The Constitution of our country formed by the fathers of liberty. Peace and good order in society. Love to God and good will to man. All good and wholesome laws, virtue and truth above all things, and aristarchy, live forever! But woe to tyrants, mobs, aristocracy, anarchy, and toryism, and all those who invent or seek out unrighteous and vexatious lawsuits, under the pretext and color of law, or office, either religious or political. Exalt the standard of democracy! Down with that of priestcraft, and let all the people say Amen! that the blood of our fathers may not cry from the ground against us. Sacred is the memory of that blood which bought for us our liberty.

"Joseph Smith, Jr.

"Thomas B. Marsh.

"David W. Patten.

"Brigham Young.

"Samuel H. Smith.

"George M. Hinkle.

"John Corrill.

"George W. Robinson.


"Who is the stem of Jesse spoken of in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth verses of the eleventh chapter of Isaiah?

"Verily thus saith the Lord, It is Christ.

"What is the rod spoken of in the first verse of the eleventh chapter of Isaiah that should come of the stem of Jesse?

"Behold, thus saith the Lord, It is a servant in the hands of Christ, who is partly a descendant of Jesse as well as of Ephraim, or of the house of Joseph, on whom there is laid much power.

"What is the root of Jesse spoken of in the tenth verse of the eleventh chapter?

"Behold, thus saith the Lord, It is a descendant of Jesse, as well as of Joseph, unto whom rightly belong the priesthood, and the keys of the kingdom, for an ensign, and for the gathering of my people in the last days.

"Questions by Elias Higbee, as follows:-

"What is meant by the command in Isaiah, fifty-second

(page 138)


chapter, first verse, which saith, '"Put on thy strength, O Zion:"? And what people had Isaiah reference to?'

"He had reference to those whom God should call in the last days, who should hold the power of priesthood to bring again Zion, and the redemption of Israel; and to put on her strength is to put on the authority of the priesthood, which she (Zion) has a right to by lineage; also to return to that power which she had lost.

"What are we to understand by Zion's loosing herself from the bands of her neck, second verse?

"We are to understand that the scattered remnants are exhorted to return to the Lord from whence they have fallen, which if they do, the promise of the Lord is that he will speak to them, or give them revelation. See the sixth, seventh, and eighth verses. The bands of her neck are the curses of God upon her, or the remnants of Israel in their scattered condition among the Gentiles.'"-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 114, 115, 117, 118.

About this time a disaffection which had been growing for some time culminated in the expulsion from the church of several prominent men, among whom were two of the presidents of the church in Missouri: John Whitmer and W. W. Phelps.

A conference and a meeting of the High Council were held, in which this matter was considered and disposed of. We give the minutes of these from the history of Joseph Smith, as published in the Millennial Star, volume 16, which was not published during the lifetime of Joseph Smith or D. W. Patten. Further than this we know nothing of the merits or demerits of this unfortunate controversy. We are not interested in criminating the men involved on the one side, nor in shielding those on the other. We therefore give the record as it appears for what it may be worth.

It will be observed that the minutes of the conference are signed by John Murdock, Moderator, and T. B. Marsh, Clerk.

The minutes of the High Council are signed by Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten, Presidents, and Ebenezer Robinson, Clerk. So whatever sentiment these minutes contain

(page 139)


besides the actual business done, received the indorsement [endorsement] of those over whose signatures it appears.

"'Minutes of the proceedings of the committee of the whole church in Zion, in General Assembly, at the following places; to wit: At Far West, February 5, 1838. Thomas B. Marsh, Moderator, John Cleminson, Clerk.

"'After prayer the moderator stated the object of the meeting, giving a relation of the recent organization of the church here and in Kirtland. He also read a certain revelation given in Kirtland, September 3,1837, which made known that John Whitmer and W. W. Phelps were in transgression, and if they repented not they should be removed out of their places; also read a certain clause contained in the appeal published in the old Star, on the one hundred and eighty-third page as follows: "And to sell our lands would amount to a denial of our faith, as that is the place where the Zion of God shall stand, according to our faith and belief in the revelations of God."

"'Elder John Murdock then took the stand and showed to the congregation why the High Council proceeded thus was that the church might have a voice in the matter; and that he considered it perfectly legal according to the instructions of President Joseph Smith, Jr.

"'Elder G. M. Hinkle then set forth the way in which the Presidency of Far West had been labored with, that a committee of three, of whom he was one, had labored with them. He then read a written document containing a number of accusations against the three Presidents. He spoke many things against them, setting forth in a plain and energetic manner the iniquity of Phelps and Whitmer in using the moneys which were loaned to the church. Also David Whitmer's wrong in persisting in the use of tea, coffee, and tobacco.

"'Bishop Partridge then arose and endeavored to rectify some mistakes of minor importance made by Elder Hinkle; also the Bishop spoke against the proceedings of the meeting as being hasty and illegal, for he thought they ought to be had before the Common Council, and said that he could

(page 140)


not lift his hand against the Presidency at present. He then read a letter from President Joseph Smith, Jr.

"'A letter was then read by T. B. Marsh, from William Smith, who made some comments on the same, and also on the letter read by Bishop Partridge.

"'Elder George Morey, who was one of the committee sent to labor with the Presidency, spoke, setting forth in a very energetic manner the proceedings of the Presidency as being iniquitous.

"'Elder Grover, also, being one of the committee, spoke against the conduct of the Presidency and Oliver Cowdery, on their visit to labor with them.

"'Elder D. W. Patten then spoke with much zeal against the Presidency, and in favor of Joseph Smith, Jr., and that the wolf alluded to in his letter were the dissenters in Kirtland.

"'Elder Lyman Wight stated that he considered all other accusations of minor importance compared to their selling their land in Jackson County; that they (Phelps and Whitmer) had set an example which all the saints were liable to follow. He said that it was a hellish principle, and that they had flatly denied the faith in so doing.

"'Elder Elias Higbee sanctioned what had been done by the council, speaking against the Presidency.

"'Elder Murdock stated that sufficient had been said to substantiate the accusations against them.

"'Elder Solomon Hancock pleaded in favor of the Presidency, stating that he could not raise his hand against them.

"'Elder John Corrill then spake against the proceedings of the High Council, and labored hard to show that the meeting was illegal, and that the Presidency ought to be had before a proper tribunal, which he considered to be a bishop and twelve high priests. He labored in favor of the Presidency, and said that he should not raise his hands against them at present, although he did not uphold the Presidents in their iniquity.

"'Simeon Carter spoke against the meeting as being hasty.

(page 141)


"'Elder Grover followed Brother Carter in like observations.

"'Elder Patten again took the stand in vindication of the cause of the meeting.

"'Elder Morley spoke against the Presidency, at the same time pleading mercy.

"'Titus Billings said he could not vote until they had a hearing in the Common Council.

"'Elder Marsh said that the meeting was according to the direction of Brother Joseph, he therefore considered it legal.

"'Elder Moses Martin spoke in favor of the legality of the meeting, and against the conduct of the Presidency, with great energy, alleging that the present corruptions of the church here were owing to the wickedness and mismanagement of her leaders.

"'The moderator then called the vote in favor of the present Presidency; the negative was then called, and the vote against David Whitmer, John Whitmer, and William W. Phelps was unanimous, excepting eight or ten, and this minority only wished them to continue in office a little longer, or until Joseph Smith, Jr., came up.

"'In S. Carter's settlement the saints assembled on the 6th instant, when they unanimously rejected the three above named Presidents. On the 7th, the saints assembled at Edmond Durphy's, agreeable to appointment, where the above-named Presidents were unanimously rejected; also on the 8th at Nahum Curtis's dwelling house, they were unanimously rejected by the assembly; also at Haun's Mills, on the 9th, the saints unanimously rejected them.

"'At a meeting of the High Council, the Bishop, and his council, February 10, 1838, it was moved, seconded, and carried, that Oliver Cowdery, William W. Phelps, and John Whitmer stand no longer as chairman and clerks to sign and record licenses.

"'Voted that Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten be authorized to attend to such business for the time being.

"'Also voted that Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten be Presidents, pro tempore, of the Church of Latter Day

(page 142)


Saints in Missouri, until Presidents Joseph Smith, Jr., and Sidney Rigdon arrive in the land of Zion.

"'J. Murdock, Moderator

"'T. B. Marsh, Clerk

"'The High Council of Zion met in Far West, on Saturday, March 10,1838, agreeable to adjournment; when after discussion it was resolved first: That the High Council recommend by writing to the various branches of this church, that all those who wish to receive ordination, procure a recommend from the branch to which they belong, and have it pass through the hands of the different quorums for inspection, previous to their ordination.

"'2d. Resolved that the High Council recommend to all those who hold licenses, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, and do not officiate in their respective offices, to be subject to military duty.

"'A charge was then preferred against William W. Phelps and John Whitmer for persisting in unchristianlike conduct.

"'Six counselors were appointed to speak; viz., Simeon Carter, Isaac Higbee, and Levi Jackson [Jackman?], on the part of the accuser; and Jared Carter, Thomas Grover, and Samuel Bent, on the part of the accused; when the following letter was read by Brother Marcellus Cowdery, bearer of the same, belonging to Thomas B. Marsh, previous to giving it to its rightful owner:-

"'"Far West, March 10, 1838.

"'"Sir:-It is contrary to the principles of the revelations of Jesus Christ, and his gospel, and the laws of the land, to try a person for an offense by an illegal tribunal, or by men prejudiced against him, or by authority that has given an opinion or decision beforehand, or in his absence.

"'"Very respectfully we have the honor to be

"'"David Whitmer,

"'"W. W. Phelps,

"'"John Whitmer,

"'"Presidents of the Church of Christ in Missouri.

"'"To T. B. Marsh, one of the Traveling Counselors."

"'Attested, OLIVER COWDERY, Clerk of the High Council of the Church of Christ in Missouri.

(page 143)


"'I certify the foregoing to be a true copy from the original.

"'OLIVER COWDERY, Clerk of the High Council.

"'All the effect the above letter had upon the council was to convince them more of the wickedness of those men by endeavoring to palm themselves upon the Church as her Presidents after the church had by a united voice removed them from their presidential office for their ungodly conduct; and the letter was considered no more nor less than a direct insult or contempt cast upon the authorities of God and the Church of Jesus Christ; therefore the council proceeded to business.

"'A number of charges were sustained against these men, the principal of which was for claiming two thousand dollars church funds, which they had subscribed for building an house to the Lord in this place, when they held in their possession the city plot, and were sitting in the presidential chair, which subscription they were intending to pay from the avails of the town lots; but when the town plot was transferred into the hands of the Bishop for the benefit of the church, it was agreed that the church should take this subscription from off the hands of W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer; but in the transaction of the business they bound the Bishop in a heavy mortgage to pay them the above two thousand dollars in two years from the date thereof, a part of which they had already received, and claim the remainder.

"'The six counselors made a few appropriate remarks, none of whom felt to plead for mercy, as it had not been asked on the part of the accused, but all with one consent declared that justice ought to have her demands.

"'After some remarks by Presidents Marsh and Patten, setting forth the iniquity of those men in claiming the two thousand dollars spoken of, which did not belong to them any more than any other person in the church, it was decided that William W. Phelps and John Whitmer be no longer members of the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints, and be given over to the buffetings of Satan, until they learn to blaspheme no more against the authorities of God, nor fleece the flock of Christ.

(page 144)


"'The council was then asked if they concurred with the decision; if so, to manifest it by rising, when they all arose.

"'The vote was then put to the congregation, which was carried unanimously.

"'The negative was called but no one voted.

"'Brother Marcellus Cowdery arose and said he wished to have it understood that he did not vote either way, because he did not consider it a legal tribunal. He also offered insult to the High Council and to the church, by reading a letter belonging to Thomas B. Marsh before giving it to him, and in speaking against the authorities of the church.

"'A motion was then made by President Patten, that fellowship be withdrawn from Marcellus Cowdery until he make satisfaction; which was seconded and carried unanimously.

"'Thomas B. Marsh,}

"'David W. Patten, }Presidents.

"'Ebenezer Robinson, Clerk of High Council.'"

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 115-117.

The following letter, written to the authorities of the church at Kirtland by Joseph Smith, will be read with interest. We invite especial attention to the vision concerning Elder Marks, which indicates that he would finally triumph over his enemies and be raised "up for a blessing unto many people."

"'To the Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Kirtland:-

"'Dear and Well-Beloved Brethren:-Through the grace and mercy of our God, after a long and tedious journey of two months and one day, I and my family arrived safe in the city of Far West, having been met at Huntsville, one hundred and twenty miles from the place, by my brethren with teams and money, to forward us on our journey. When within eight miles of the city of Far West we were met by an escort of brethren from the city; viz., Thomas B. Marsh, John Corrill, Elias Higbee, and several others of the faithful of the West, who received us with open arms and warm hearts, and welcomed us to the bosom of their society. On our arrival in the city we were greeted on every hand by

(page 145)


the saints, who bade us welcome to the land of their inheritance.

"'Dear brethren, you may be assured that so friendly a meeting and reception paid us well for our long seven years of servitude, persecution, and affliction in the midst of our enemies, in the land of Kirtland; yea, verily, our hearts were full, and we feel grateful to Almighty God for his kindness unto us. The particulars of our journey, brethren, cannot well be written; but we trust that the same God who has protected us will protect you also, and will, sooner or later, grant us the privilege of seeing each other face to face, and of rehearsing all our sufferings.

"'We have heard of the destruction of the printing office, which we presume to believe must have been occasioned by the Parrish party, or more properly the aristocrats or anarchies [anarchy's].

"'The saints here have provided a room for us, and daily necessaries, which are brought in from all parts of the country to make us comfortable; so that I have nothing to do but to attend to my spiritual concerns, or the spiritual affairs of the church.

"'The difficulties of the church had been adjusted before my arrival here, by a judicious High Council, with Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten, who acted as Presidents pro tempore of the church of Zion, being appointed by the voice of the council and church; William W. Phelps and John Whitmer having been cut off from the church, David Whitmer remaining as yet. The saints at this time are in union; and peace and love prevail throughout; in a word, heaven smiles upon the saints in Caldwell. Various and many have been the falsehoods written from thence to this place, but have availed nothing. We have no uneasiness about the power of our enemies in this place to do us harm.

"'Brother Samuel H. Smith and family arrived here soon after we did, in good health. Brothers Brigham Young, Daniel S. Miles, and Levi Richards arrived here when we did. They were with us on the last of our journey, which ended much to our satisfaction. They also are well. They

(page 146)


have provided places for their families, and are now about to break the ground for seed.

"'Having been under the hands of wicked and vexatious lawsuits for seven years past, my business was so deranged that I was not able to leave it in so good a situation as I had anticipated; but if there are any wrongs, they shall all be noticed, so far as the Lord gives me ability and power to do so.

"'Say to all the brethren that I have not forgotten them, but remember them in my prayers. Say to Mother Beeman, that I remember her, also Brother Daniel Carter, Brother Strong and family, Brother Granger and family; finally I cannot enumerate them all for want of room; I will just name Brother Knight, the Bishop, etc. My best respects to them all, and I commend them and the Church of God in Kirtland to our heavenly Father, and the word of his grace, which is able to make you wise unto salvation.

"'I would just say to Brother Marks, that I saw in a vision while on the road, that whereas he was closely pursued by an innumerable concourse of enemies, and as they pressed upon him hard, as if they were about to devour him, and had seemingly obtained some degree of advantage over him, but about this time a chariot of fire came, and near the place, even the angel of the Lord put forth his hand unto Brother Marks, and said unto him, "Thou art my son, come here," and immediately he was caught up in the chariot, and rode away triumphantly out of their midst. And again the Lord said, "I will raise thee up for a blessing unto many people." Now the particulars of this whole matter cannot be written at this time, but the vision was evidently given to me that I might know that the hand of the Lord would be on his behalf.

"'I transmit to you the Motto of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

"'We left President Rigdon thirty miles this side of Paris, Illinois, in consequence of the sickness of Brother George W. Robinson's wife.

"'On yesterday Brother Robinson arrived here, who informed us that his father-in-law (S. Rigdon) was at Huntsville

(page 147)


detained on account of the ill health of his wife. They will probably be here soon.

"'Choice seeds of all kinds of fruit, also choice breed of cattle, would be in much demand; and best blood of horses, garden seeds of every description, and hay seeds of all sorts, are much needed in this place.

"'Very respectfully I subscribe myself your servant in Christ, our Lord and Savior,

"'Joseph Smith, Jr.

"'President of the Church of Christ of

Latter Day Saints.'"

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 130, 131.

Sidney Rigdon arrived at Far West with his family on April 4, 1838.

At the time of John Whitmer's expulsion he was the official historian of the church. He refused to give up the records, and by some it has been claimed that the church never obtained access to them. 1

This, however, does not agree with the statement made by Ebenezer Robinson in 1889, who was the clerk writing the letter above referred to for the Presidency. 2

We have been unable to learn the whereabouts of either the original or the copy.

In June, 1896, we made a special trip to Richmond, Missouri, for the purpose of obtaining a view of the original, but were unsuccessful. We were courteously treated by the Whitmer family and Elder Philander Page; but none of them could locate the present whereabouts of the record. Mr. George Schweich, a grandson of David Whitmer, gave

1 After his excommunication from the church John Whitmer refused to deliver up the church documents in his possession to the proper authorities, which gave occasion for quite a severe letter from Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon. The records, however, were never obtained; they are now [1888] in the custody of John C. Whitmer (a nephew of John Whitmer) who resides in Richmond, Clay County, Missouri.-Historical Record, p. 613.
2 No attention was paid to the foregoing letter by John Whitmer, as, perhaps, he thought he would not be justified in thus surrendering the work which had been assigned him by revelation. The record was subsequently obtained however, and brought to our house, where we copied the entire record into another book, assisted a part of the time, by Dr. Levi Richards.-The Return, vol. 1, p. 133.

(page 148)


us encouragement that he would find the record and permit us to have access to it for the purposes of this history; but up to the time of going to press (May, 1897) it has not been received.

On April 6, 1838, the anniversary of the organization of the church was celebrated in Far West, of which Joseph Smith records the following:-

"Far West, April 6, 1838. Agreeable to a resolution passed by the High Council of Zion, March 3, 1838, the saints in Missouri assembled in this place, to celebrate the anniversary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and to transact church business; Joseph Smith, Jr., and Sidney Rigdon presiding.

"The meeting was opened by singing, and prayer by David W. Patten, after which President Joseph Smith, Jr., read the order of the day as follows: Doors will be opened at nine o'clock a. m., and the meeting will commence by singing and prayer. A sexton will then be appointed for a doorkeeper, and other services in the house of the Lord. Two historians will then be appointed to write and keep the Church History; also a General Recorder to keep the records of the whole church, and to be the clerk of the First Presidency. And a clerk will be appointed for the High Council, and to keep the church records of this stake. Three presidents will be appointed to preside over this church of Zion, after which an address will be delivered by the Presidency. Then an intermission of one hour, when the meeting will again convene, and open by singing and prayer. The sacrament will then be administered, and the blessing of infants attended to.

"The meeting then proceeded to business. George Morey was appointed sexton, and Dimick Huntington assistant; John Corrill and Elias Higbee historians; George W. Robinson General Church Recorder, and clerk to the First Presidency Ebenezer Robinson church clerk and recorder for Far West, and clerk of the High Council; Thomas B. Marsh president pro tempore of the church in Zion, and Brigham Young and David W. Patten his assistant presidents.

(page 149)


"After one hour's adjournment, meeting again opened by David W. Patten. The bread and wine were administered, and ninety-five infants were blessed.

"Joseph Smith, Jr., President.

"E. Robinson, Clerk."

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 131, 132.

A quarterly conference was held at Far West, April 7 and 8. The several quorums were represented: The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was represented by D. W. Patten, who highly commended T. B. Marsh, Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, P. P. Pratt, and Orson Pratt. He spoke doubtfully of William Smith, and declared he could not recommend W. E. McLellin, Luke Johnson, Lyman Johnson, and J. F. Boynton.

John Murdock represented the High Council, stating that E. H. Groves, Calvin Beebe, and Lyman Wight had moved so far away that they could not attend the councils. Thomas B. Marsh nominated Jared Carter, J. P. Green, and G. W. Harris to fill their places, and these nominations were unanimously approved, and G. W. Harris was ordained a high priest.

C. C. Rich represented the Quorum of High Priests.

D. S. Miles and Levi Hancock represented the Seventies.

Harvey Green represented the Elders.

Bishop Partridge represented his council and the lesser priesthood.

On April 11,1838, charges were preferred against Oliver Cowdery, by Seymour Bronson. He was tried before the Bishop's court on the 12th, and expelled from the church. This account is found on page 188 of Millennial Star, volume 16, where reference is made to Book "A," Far West Record.

On April 13, charges were preferred against David Whitmer, upon which he was tried before the High Council and expelled. An account of this trial is found in the Millennial Star, volume 16, pages 133 and 134, where reference is made to Far West Record, Book "A. "

On the same day Lyman E. Johnson was expelled on conviction

(page 150)


before the High Council. (See also Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 134.)

It has been urged in the case of Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and others, that there is no record that their cases were ever presented to the church, or that the church ever lifted up their hands against them, as provided for in the law; and it is further urged that neither the High Council nor the Bishop's Council have authority to take the final action in expelling members; hence that they were not legally expelled from the church. Whether their cases were presented to the church or not, we do not know; nor is it our province as historians to discuss what the legitimate effect of these council decisions without a vote of the church would be.

On April 26,1838, the Teachers resolved that they would not fellowship any member of the quorum who did not settle his own difficulties, and that they would not fellowship any member of the quorum who would take unlawful interest.

On this date a revelation was given which among other things settles definitely the name of the church. 3

About this time Joseph Smith began writing a history of the church.

3 Revelation, given at Far West, April 26,1838, making known the will of God concerning the building up of this place, and of the Lord's house, etc.
Verily thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph Smith, Jr., and also my servant Sidney Rigdon, and also my servant Hyrum Smith, and your counselors who are and shall be appointed hereafter; and also unto you my servant Edward Partridge, and his counselors; and also unto my faithful servants, who are of the High Council of my church in Zion (for thus it shall be called), and unto all the elders and people of my Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, scattered abroad in all the world; for thus shall my church be called in the last days, even the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Verily I say unto you all, Arise and shine forth, that thy light may be a standard for the nations, and that the gathering together upon the land of Zion and upon her stakes may be for a defense, and for a refuge from the storm, and from wrath when it shall be poured out without mixture upon the whole earth.
Let the city, Far West, be a holy and consecrated land unto me, and it shall be called most holy, for the ground upon which thou standest is holy; therefore I command you to build an house unto me, for the gathering together of my saints, that they may worship me; and let there be a beginning of this work, and a foundation, and a preparatory work, this following summer; and let the beginning be made on the 4th day of July next, and from that time forth let my people labor diligently to build an house unto my name, and in one year from this day let them

(page 151)


On May 5,1838, General Wilson, then the Federal candidate for Congress, delivered an address in Far West.

On Monday, May 7, Elders P. P. Pratt and Reynolds Cahoon arrived in Far West, from Kirtland, Ohio.

Of the trial of W. E. McLellin and Doctor McCord, Joseph Smith writes as follows:-

"Friday, 11th. I attended the trial of William E. McLellin and Doctor McCord, for transgression, before the Bishop's Court.

"McCord said, 'he was sorry to trouble the council on his account, for he had intended to withdraw from the church before he left the place; that he had no confidence in the work of God, or his prophet, and should go his own way.' He gave up his license and departed.

"William E. McLellin stated about the same as McCord, and that 'he had no confidence in the heads of the church, believing they had transgressed, and had got out of the way, consequently he quit praying, and keeping the commandments of God, and indulged himself in his lustful desires, but when he heard that the First Presidency had made a general settlement, and acknowledged their sins, he began to pray again, etc.' When I interrogated him, he said, 'he had seen nothing out of the way himself, but he judged from hearsay.'"-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 151.

recommence laying the foundation of my house; thus let them from that time forth labor diligently until it shall be finished, from the corner stone thereof unto the top thereof, until there shall not anything remain that is not finished.
Verily I say unto you, Let not my servant Joseph, neither my servant Sidney, neither my servant Hyrum, get in debt any more for the building of an house unto my name; but let an house be built unto my name according to the pattern which I will show unto them. And if my people build it not according to the pattern which I shall show unto their Presidency, I will not accept it at their hands; but if my people do build it according to the pattern which I shall show unto their Presidency, even my servant Joseph and his counselors, then I will accept it at the hands of my people. And again, verily I say unto you, It is my will that the city of Far West should be built up speedily by the gathering of my saints, and also that other places should be appointed for stakes in the regions round about, as they shall be manifest unto my servant Joseph, from time to time; for behold, I will be with him, and I will sanctify him before the people, for unto him have I given the keys of this kingdom and ministry. Even so. Amen.-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 147, 148.

(page 152)


In regard to exploring northward from Far West and of locating "Adam-ondi-ahman," Joseph writes:-

"Friday, 18th. I left Far West in company with Sidney Rigdon, T. B. Marsh, D. W. Patten, Bishop Partridge, E. Higbee, S. Carter, Alanson Ripley, and many others, for the purpose of visiting the north country, and laying off a stake of Zion, making locations, and laying claims to facilitate the gathering of the saints, and for the benefit of the poor, in upbuilding the Church of God. We traveled to the mouth of Honey Creek, which is a tributary of Grand River, where we camped for the night. We passed a beautiful country of land, a majority of which is prairie (untimbered land), and thickly covered with grass and weeds, among which is plenty of game; such as deer, turkey, hen, elk, etc. We discovered a large black wolf, and my dog gave him chase, but he outran us. We have nothing to fear in camping out, except the rattlesnake, which is natural to this country, though not very numerous. We turned our horses loose and let them feed on the prairie.

"Saturday, l9th. This morning we struck our tents and formed a line of march, crossing Grand River at the mouth of Honey Creek and Nelson's Ferry. Grand River is a large, beautiful, deep, and rapid stream during the high waters of spring, and will undoubtedly admit of steamboat navigation and other water craft; and at the mouth of Honey Creek are a splendid harbor and good landing.

"We pursued our course up the river, mostly in the timber, about eighteen miles, when we arrived at Colonel Lyman Wight's, who lives at the foot of Tower Hill (a name I gave it in consequence of the remains of an old Nephite altar or tower), where we camped for the Sabbath.

"In the afternoon I went up the river about half a mile to Wight's Ferry, accompanied by President Rigdon and my clerk, George W. Robinson, for the purpose of selecting and laying claim to a city plat near said ferry in Daviess County, township 60, range 27 and 28, and sections 25, 36, 31, and 30, which the brethren called Spring Hill; but by the mouth of the Lord it was named Adam-ondi-ahman, because, said he,

(page 153)


it is the place where Adam shall come to visit his people, or the Ancient of Days shall sit, as spoken of by Daniel the Prophet.

"Sunday, 20th, was spent by our company principally at Adam-ondi-ahman; but near the close of the day we struck our tents and traveled about six miles north, and encamped for the night in company with Judge Morin and company, who were also traveling north.

"Monday, 21st. This morning, after making some locations in this place, which is in township 61, range 27 and 28, we returned to Robinson's Grove, about two miles, to secure some land near Grand River, which we passed the day previous; and finding a mistake in the former survey, I sent the surveyor south five or six miles to obtain a correct line while some of us tarried to obtain water for the camp.

"In the evening I called a council of the brethren, to know whether it was wisdom to go immediately into the north country, or tarry here and hereabouts, to secure land on Grand River, etc. The brethren spoke their minds freely on the subject, when I stated to the council that I felt impressed to tarry and secure all the land near by that is not secured between this and Far West, especially on Grand River. President Rigdon concurred, and the council voted unanimously to secure the land on Grand River, and between this and Far West. . . .

"Tuesday, 22d. President Rigdon went last [east?] with a company, and selected some of the best locations in the county, and returned with a good report of that vicinity, and valuable locations which might be secured. Following awhile in the course of the company I returned to camp in Robinson's Grove, and from thence went west to obtain some game to supply our necessities. We discovered some antiquities about one mile west of the camp, consisting of stone mounds, apparently erected in square piles, though somewhat decayed and obliterated by the weather of many years. These mounds were probably erected by the aborigines of the land, to secrete treasures. We returned without game.

"Wednesday, 23d. We all traveled east, locating lands,

(page 154)


to secure a claim on Grove Greek and near the city of Adam-ondi-ahman. Towards evening I accompanied Elder Rigdon to Colonel Wight's, and the remainder of the company returned to their tents.

"Thursday, 24th. This morning the company returned to Grove Creek to finish the survey, accompanied by President Rigdon and Colonel Wight, and I returned to Far West.

"Friday, 25th. The company put up the river, and made some locations. In the afternoon they struck their tents and removed to Colonel Wight's.

"Saturday, 26th. They surveyed lands on the other side of the river opposite Adam-ondi-ahman.

"Sunday, 27th, they spent at Colonel Wight's.

"Monday, 28th. The company started for home (Far West), and I left Far West the same day in company with Brother Hyrum Smith and fifteen or twenty others, to seek locations in the north, and about noon we met President Rigdon and his company going into the city, where they arrived the same evening.

"President Hyrum Smith returned to Far West on the 30th, and I returned on the 1st of June, on account of my family, for I had a son born unto me. 4

"Monday, June 4. I left Far West with President Rigdon, my brother Hyrum, and others, for Adam-ondi-ahman, and staid [stayed] at Brother Moses Dailey's over night; and on the morning of the 6th went to Colonel Lyman Wight's in the rain. We continued surveying, building houses, etc., day after day for many days, until the surveyor had completed the city plat. . . .

"June 16. My uncle, John Smith, and family, with six other families, arrived in Far West, all in good health and spirits. I counseled them to settle at Adam-ondi-ahman."- Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 152, 153.

Lyman Wight in his journal agrees with this account. He writes:-

"About June Joseph Smith, together with many others

4 This son was President Alexander Hale Smith, who was born on the 2d.

(page 155)


of the principal men of the church, came to my house, and taking a view of the large bottom in the bend of the river, and the beautiful prairies on the bluffs, came to the conclusion that it would be a handsome situation for a town. We therefore commenced surveying and laying off town lots, and locating government lands for many miles north of this place. This beautiful country with its flattering prospects drew in floods of emigrants. I had not less than thirty comers and goers through the day during the three summer months, and up to the last-mentioned date [last of October] there were upwards of two hundred houses built in this town, and also about forty families living in their wagons."

On June 28, 1838, a conference was held at Adam-ondi-ahman, for the purpose of organizing a stake. The following are the minutes of this organization as published in the history of Joseph Smith:-

"Adam-ondi-ahman, Missouri, Daviess County, June 28, 1838. A conference of elders and members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was held in this place this day, for the purpose of organizing this stake of Zion, called Adam-ondi-ahman.

"The meeting convened at ten o'clock a. m., in the grove, near the house of Elder Lyman Wight.

"President Joseph Smith, Jr., was called to the chair, who explained the object of the meeting, which was to organize a Presidency and High Council, to preside over this stake of Zion, and attend to the affairs of the church in Daviess County.

"It was then motioned, seconded, and carried by the unanimous voice of the assembly, that President John Smith should act as President of the Stake of Adam-ondi-ahman.

"Reynolds Cahoon was unanimously chosen first counselor, and Lyman Wight second counselor.

"After prayer the Presidents ordained Elder Wight as second counselor.

"Vinson Knight was chosen acting Bishop pro tempore, by the unanimous voice of the assembly.

"President John Smith then proceeded to organize the High Council. The counselors were chosen according to the

(page 156)


following order, by a unanimous vote: John Lemon, lst; Daniel Stanton, 2d; Mayhew Hillman, 3d; Daniel Carter, 4th; Isaac Perry, 5th; Harrison Sagers, 6th; Alanson Brown, 7th; Thomas Gordon, 8th; Lorenzo D. Barnes, 9th; George A. Smith, l0th; Harvey Olmstead, 11th; Ezra Thayer, 12th.

"After the ordination of the counselors, who had not previously been ordained to the high priesthood, President Joseph Smith, Jr., made remarks by way of charge to the presidents and counselors, instructing them in the duties of their callings, and the responsibility of their stations, exhorting them to be cautious and deliberate in all their councils, and to be careful and act in righteousness in all things.

"President John Smith, R. Cahoon, and L. Wight then made some remarks.

"Lorenzo D. Barnes was unanimously chosen clerk of this council and stake, and after singing the well known hymn, Adam-ondi-ahman, the meeting closed by prayer by President Cahoon, and a benediction by President Joseph Smith, Jr.

"Lorenzo D. Barnes,}


"Isaac Perry }

-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 181.

July 4 was a great day in Far West. A grand celebration was held. "Joseph Smith, Jr., was president of the day, Hyrum Smith vice president, Sidney Rigdon orator; Reynolds Cahoon chief marshal, and George W. Robinson clerk." The procession commenced forming at ten a. m., and marched to the Temple Lot, forming a circle around the excavation; when the corner stones of the proposed temple were laid with appropriate ceremonies. After this the oration was delivered by Sidney Rigdon. 5 This was an able and patriotic address, but contained

5 'Friends and Fellow Citizens:-By your request I am called upon to address you this day under circumstances novel to myself, and, I presume, as much so to most of you; for however frequently we may have met our fellow citizens in times past, in the places of our nativity, or of our choice, to mingle our feelings with theirs, and unite with them in grateful acknowledgments to our divine Benefactor, on the anniversary of our national existence, we have never before been assembled by reason of our holy religion, for which cause alone a very large majority of us are here to-day. But though our residence here is far from the sepulchers

(page 157)


some scathing denunciations of mobs and lawless practices.

If it be granted that this speech is correctly reported by Hunt, the orator crossed the bounds of propriety and right

of our fathers, and from the lands of our nativity and former choice; and our association here as novel and as strange to ourselves as it could be to any portion of our fellow men; still we hail the return of the birthday of our liberties with no less feelings of joy and gratitude, nor no less desire for the prosperity and continuance of the fabric of our national government inspires our breasts this day, than when we met in the mixed assemblies of all religions, as in times past, in the lands of our nativity. Nor, indeed, could it otherwise be: from our infancy, we have been traditionated to believe ours to be the best government in the world. Our fathers, our neighbors, and our associates in life have extolled its excellence to the highest pinnacle of fame in our ears, even before we were capable of judging of its merits for ourselves, or were able to form an estimate of its worth. As we advanced in life we heard nothing else from our statesmen and heroes but the perfection and excellence of our public institutions, and the superiority of our government over all the governments of the world, whether they existed in former or latter times. It is the government under which we were born and educated, or else we exchanged another for it, with whose form we were satisfied, and in exchange gave this the preference, and sought, by removal, to enjoy its benefits. We have been taught from our cradles to reverence the Fathers of the Revolution, and venerate the very urns which contain the ashes of those who sleep; and every feeling of our hearts responds in perfect unison to their precept. Our country and its institutions are written on the tablet of our hearts, as with the blood of the heroes who offered their lives in sacrifice, to redeem us from oppression. On it towers the flag of freedom, and invites the oppressed to enter, and find an asylum; under the safeguard of its constitution the tyrant grasp is unfastened, and equal rights and privileges flow to every part of the grand whole. Protected by its laws, and defended by its powers the oppressed and persecuted saint can worship under his own vine and fig tree, and none can molest or make him afraid. We have always contemplated it, and do now, as the only true fabric of freedom and bulwark of our liberty in the world. Its very existence has taught the civilized world, far surpassing those of a Pitt, a Wilberforce, a Canning, or a Grey, and has cast all their efforts in the shade forever. It has stood, and now stands, as the arbiter of the world, the judge of the nations, and the rebuker of tyrants throughout the world: it is the standard of freedom, both civil and religious. By its existence, the fears of the superstitious have been removed, and the pretexts of tyrants have been swept away, as a refuge of lives [lies], and the rights of man have been restored, and freedom, both political and religious, have been made to triumph. Our government is known throughout the civilized world, as the standard of freedom, civil, religious, and political: By it are the acts of all nations tried; and it serves to expose the frauds, the deceptions, and crafts of the old world, in attempting to palm upon the people monarchy and aristocracy for republicanism and freedom. So powerful has been its influence that the hand of the oppressor, even in the old world, has been lightened-tyrants have been made to tremble, and oppressors of mankind have been filled with fear. Thrones, if they have not been cast down, have been stripped of their terror, and the oppressed subject has been measurably delivered from his bondage. Having been rocked in the cradle

(page 158)


in boasting, and bidding defiance to the mob; but he may be measurebly [measurably] excused when we consider how much persecution

of liberty and educated in the school of freedom, all our prejudices and prepossessions are deeply rooted in favor of this superlative excellence of government from which all our privileges and enjoyments have flown. We are wedded to it by the greatest ties,-bound to it by cords as strong as death,-to preserve which should be our thought and our aim, in all our pursuits, to maintain its constitution inviolable, its institutions uncorrupted, its laws unviolated, and its order unchanged.
There is one thing, in the midst of our political differences, which ought to create feelings of joy and gratitude in every heart, and in the bosom of every well-wisher of mankind, that all parties in politics express the strongest desire to preserve both the Union and the Constitution unimpaired and unbroken, and only differ about the means to accomplish this object-so desirable, as expressed by all parties. And while this, indeed, is the object of parties in this republic, there is nothing to fear: the prospects for the future will be as flattering as the past, in celebrating this the anniversary of our independence: all party distinctions should be forgotten-all religious differences should be laid aside. We are members of our common republic, equally dependent on a faithful execution of its laws for our protection in the enjoyment of our civil, political, and religious privileges; all have a common interest in the preservation of the Union, and in the defense and support of the Constitution. Northern, southern, and western interests ought to be forgotten, or lost, for the time being, in the more noble desire to preserve the Union;-we cannot, by rending it to pieces. In the former there is hope; in the latter, there is fear;-in one, peace; in the other, war. In times of peace it ought to be our aim and our object to strengthen the bonds of the Union, by cultivating peace and good will among ourselves; and in times of war, to meet our foes sword in hand, and defend our rights at the expense of life. For what is life when freedom has fled? It is a name-a bubble: "better far sleep with the dead, than be oppressed among the living." All attempts on the part of religious aspirants to unite church and state ought to be repelled with indignation, and every religious society supported in its rights, and in the exercise of its conscientious devotions-the Mohammedan, the pagan, and the idolater not excepted-and be partakers equally in the benefits of the government; for if the Union is preserved, it will be endearing the people to it; and this can only be done by securing to all their most sacred rights. The least deviation from the strictest rule of right, on the part of any portion of the people, or their public servants, will create dissatisfaction; that dissatisfaction will end in strife,-strife, in war,-war, in the dissolution of the Union. It is on the virtue of the people that depends the existence of the government, and not in the wisdom of legislators. Wherefore serveth laws (it matters not how righteous in themselves) when the people, in violation of them, tear those rights from one another, which they (the laws) were designed to protect? If we preserve the nation from ruin and the people from war it will be by securing to others what we claim ourselves, and being as zealous to defend another's rights as to secure our own. If, on this day, our fathers pledged their fortunes, their lives, and their sacred honors to one another, and to the claims which they represented, to be free, or to lose all earthly inheritance (not life and honor excepted), so ought we to follow their example, and pledge our fortunes, our lives, and our sacred honors, as their children and their successors, in maintaining inviolable what they obtained by their treasure and their blood. With

(page 159)


and oppression they had been subjected to; and how they had been driven from place to place, robbed, and

holy feelings, sacred desires, and grateful hearts to our divine Benefactor, ought we to perform the duties of this day, and enjoy the privileges which, as saints of the living God, we enjoy in this land of liberty and freedom, where our most sacred rights, even that of worshipping our God according to his will, is secured unto us by law; and our religious rights so identified with the existence of the nation that to deprive us of them will be to doom the nation to ruin and the Union to dissolution!
It is now threescore and two years since the God of our fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, caused the proclamation to go forth among the people of the continents that the people of this nation should be free, and that over them "Kings should not rule and princes decree authority;" and all this preparatory to the great purpose which he had designed to accomplish in the last days, in the face of all people, in order that the Son of God, the Savior of the world, should come down from heaven and reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem; and before his ancients gloriously, according to the testimony of the holy prophets since the world began: and it is eight years, two months, and twenty-eight days since this church of the last days was organized by the revelations of that same Jesus, who is coming to reign before his ancients gloriously -then consisting of six members only. At its first appearance excitement began to prevail among the people where it made its appearance; and as it increased in members the excitement increased. The first attack made upon it by its enemies was false representations and foul slander. By this engine it was assailed from ever quarter, and by all classes of men, religious and irreligious. Misrepresentation followed misrepresentation-falsehood after falsehood followed each other in rapid succession, until there must have been multitudes of them created in a minute, by those employed in it, or else they could not have gotten so many put in circulation. This scheme not succeeding, the enemies had recourse to persecutions, which were multiplied continually, apparently with determination to destroy every person who united to aid and assist in bringing forth the work of the Lord. But all this not succeeding according to the expectations of the presenters, they united to all this power that of mobs, driving men, women, and children from their houses; dragging them, in the dead hours of the night, out of their beds; whipping, tarring and feathering, and otherwise shamefully treating them. Nor were those means the only ones resorted to in this work of persecution; but being determined to put an end to the church forever, they added to all the rest of the means used-stealing the property of the saints; also burning houses and charging it on their (the saints') heads, in order to raise public indignation against them; and also false swearing; and, indeed, we may add, all other means which the adversary had in his power to use,-nothing seems to be left undone that could be done, by men and demons, in order that the purpose of God might fail; but still the object so much desired has not yet been obtained. Under all this fire of persecution the cause has rolled on with a steady course; the increase has been gradual, but constant; and the church at this time numbers many thousands. Some in the old world have become obedient to the faith; multitudes in the Canadas as well as most parts of the United States. During their scenes of persecution a number of the saints have lost their lives, and others are missing, and it is unknown what has become of them; but the presumption is, they have been secretly murdered. No country of which we have any knowledge has offered so fair an opportunity for determining the great hostility which

(page 160)


despoiled of their homes, possessions, and sacred rights. And even at that time they were hearing the mutterings of

exists naturally in the human heart against God and against his work, as this one. In other countries persecutions were carried on under pretext of law; but in this country, where the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of every State in the Union guarantees unto every person the rights of conscience and the liberty of worshipping as he pleases, to witness such scenes of persecution as those which have followed this church from the beginning, in despite of law, justice, equity, and truth, and at war with the very genius of republican institutions; and contrary to the design of our government, surely evinces the depravity of the human heart, and the great hostility there exists in the hearts of the human family against the work and purposes of God; and fully confirms the apostles, that the carnal mind is at enmity against God.
But notwithstanding all this violence we even say, as did Paul to the Corinthians, "We are troubled on every side, yet not destroyed; we are perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed." We have, until this time, endured this great weight of affliction, and kept the faith. If the ancient saints had to endure as seeing him who is invisible, so have we; if they had to suffer the contradiction of sinners against themselves, so have we; if they had to suffer stripes and imprisonments for their religion's sake, so have we; if they were journeying in perils of water, in perils among robbers, in perils by their own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren, in weariness and painfulness, in watchings, often in hunger and thirst, in fastings, often in cold and nakedness-so are we. If they had to commend themselves to God, in much patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, in stripes, in imprisonment, in tumults, in labors, in watchings, in fastings; by pureness, by knowledge, by longsuffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by love unfeigned, by the word of truth, by the power of God, by the armor of righteousness on the right hand and on the left, by honor and dishonor, by evil report and good report; as deceivers, and yet true; as unknown, and yet well known; as dying, and, behold, they lived; as chastened, and not killed; as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, yet possessing all things;-so have we. If they went up through much tribulation and washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb, so have we to go through as great a tribulation; and we trust in so doing we will also wash our robes and make them white in the blood of the Lamb.
One cause of our heavy persecution is the influence which those have in the world whom we have separated from the fellowship of the church for their wickedness; who attempt to gratify their vengeance on us, and also to hide their own shame, by foul slanders and base calumny. We were at one time represented by them as having all things common; at another as being enemies to the government; and in other places we were represented to be abolitionists; and, indeed, anything they thought best calculated to stir up the public mind, and to excite public indignation and, if possible, put an end to the work, by sacrificing some of those who were considered as most active in supporting and defending the cause. But, through the mercy of God we are still in existence, and have the opportunity of joining with you in the privileges of this day.
In assembling on this occasion our object is not only to comply with the custom of our nation in celebrating the birthday of our liberties, but also to lay the corner stone of the edifice about to be built in this place

(page 161)


the mob, who bent on plunder was threatening their peace.

Naturally they might be expected to resent any further

in honor of our God, to whom we ascribe the glory of our freedom as well as our eternal salvation, and whose worship we esteem of more consequence than we do the treasures of Missouri; ready at all times to offer unto him the sacrifice of our firstfruits; and by uniting perseverance patient industry, and faithful devotion to the cause of God, rear this building to his name, designed for the double purpose of a house of worship and an institution of learning. The first floor will be for sacred devotion, and the two others for the purpose of education. The building to be one hundred and ten feet by eighty, with three floors, and not far from thirty feet between the floors; all to be finished according to the best style of such buildings in our country; the entire expense calculated at not far from one hundred thousand dollars; all, when finished, to stand as a monument of the power of union, of effort, and concert of action.
Next to the worship of our God we esteem the education of our children and of the rising generation; for what is wealth without society, or society without intelligence? And how is intelligence to be obtained? By education. It is that which forms the youthful mind; it is that alone which renders society agreeable, and adds interest and importance to the worship of God. What is religion without intelligence? An empty sound. Intelligence is the root from which all true enjoyments flow. Intelligence is religion; and religion is intelligence, if it is anything. Take intelligence from it, and what is left? A name-a sound, without meaning. If a person desires to be truly pious in the sight of God, he must be purely intelligent. Piety without intelligence is fanaticism, and devotion without understanding is enthusiasm.
The object of our religion is to make us more intelligent than we could be without it; not so much to make us acquainted with what we do see as with what we do not see. It is designed to evolve the faculties-to enlighten the understanding-and, through this medium, purify the heart. It is calculated to make men better by making them wiser; more useful, by making them more intelligent; not intelligent on some subjects only, but on all subjects on which intelligence can be obtained. And when science fails, revelation supplies its place and unfolds the secrets and mysteries of the unseen world-leads the mind into knowledge of the future existence of men-makes it acquainted with God, its Redeemer, and its associates in the eternal mansions; so that, when science fails and philosophy vanishes away, revelation, more extensive in its operations, begins where they (science and philosophy) end, and feasts the mind with intelligence, pure and holy, from the presence of God,-tells of eternal mansions of immortal glories, of everlasting dominions, of angelic throngs, of heavenly hosts, of flaming seraphs, of crowns of glory, of palms of victory, of the saints' eternal triumph through a glorious resurrection, of songs of everlasting joy; of God, the Father of all; of Jesus, the Mediator of the new covenant, and the blood of sprinkling, which speaketh better things than that of righteous Abel.
It not only acquaints us with these eternal things, but it makes known unto us the future history of man, time of the purposes of God, which have to be accomplished before the end of all things comes. It warns and forewarns of the wars, the pestilence, the famines, the earthquakes and the desolations which are coming on the earth; the rising and falling of the nations, and also the desolations of the earth itself; the falling of the mountains, the rising of the valleys, the melting of the rocks, the purifying of the elements by fire; of the sun's veiling his face, the

(page 162)


aggressions and with patriotic courage to defend their homes and loved ones. The only legitimate criticism that can be

moon's turning to blood, the stars of heaven falling; of the heavens rolling away, as a scroll; of Christ's descending from heaven with a shout of the archangel and the trump of God, and of the wicked's fearing and trembling, of their faces gathering blackness, and of their seeking refuge under the mountains, and of their calling upon the rocks to hide them from the face of him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb, for the great day of his wrath has come, and who shall be able to stand?
All this mass of important intelligence together with the final end of all thrones, and dominions, and principalities and powers and governments, which nothing else but revelation could make known (for science with all her powers, could never declare it-neither could philosophy with all her utmost stretch, reach it), we obtain by our holy religion; for this is her province; it is the theater where she acts; it is the business we have for her; it is to tell us things which nothing else could tell; it is to fill us with that kind of wisdom which cometh down from above, and which alone is obtained by revelation, and by the powers which our holy religion confers, and by nothing else.
In view then of what we have already obtained, and of what there is to be obtained, we have assembled ourselves together in this remote land to prepare for that which is coming on the earth; and we have this day laid the corner stones of this temple of God, and designing with as little delay as possible, to complete it; and to rear up to the name of our God in this city, Far West, a house which shall be a house of prayer, a house of learning, a house of order, and a house of God, where all the sciences, languages, etc., which are taught in our country, in schools of the highest order, shall be taught; and the object is to have it on a plan accessible to all classes, the poor as well as the rich, that all persons in our midst may have an opportunity to educate their children, both male and female, to any extent they please, so that all the talents in our midst may be called forth, in order that we may avail ourselves of all the means God puts into our hands, and put into the power of all, to deliver themselves from the impositions and frauds which are practicing upon the more illiterate part of the community, by those who have had superior advantages, or as far, at least, as learning can go to obtain this object.
One part of the house shall be set apart for a place of worship, where we shall invoke our God for revelations, when we have gone as far as human skill can carry us, that by revelations, visions, etc., we may fill the vacuum still left, after science and philosophy have done all they can do; so that we may have that understanding and that wisdom which brings salvation, and that knowledge which is unto eternal life. That whether there are wars, or famines, or pestilences, or earthquakes, or distress of nations, or whatever may come according to the purposes of our God, that we may know it beforehand, and be prepared for it, so that none of these things shall overtake us as a thief in the night, and while we are enjoying peace and safety, sudden destruction come upon us. The Savior of the world himself, while he was here with his disciples, said that as it was in the days of Noah, so should it be at the coming of the Son of Man; they were eating and drinking, they were marrying and giving in marriage, and knew not until the flood came and swept them all away; so shall it be at the coming of the Son of Man. And Paul declared to the saints of his day, that the day of the Lord cometh as a thief in the night; that when the people are crying peace

(page 163)


made is that, considering their profession they should have been governed more by the spirit of the gospel and less by

and safety, then sudden destruction cometh upon them, and they shall not escape; and that wicked men and seducers would wax worse and worse, "deceiving and being deceived" "They will," says Peter, "say, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation." Such is to be the state of the world, and the most important period in the existence of man's earthly residence.
The description given by Isaiah is tremendous in the extreme: "Behold, the Lord maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. And it shall be, as with the people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with his master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the borrower; as with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him. The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled: for the Lord hath spoken this word. The earth mourneth and fadeth away, the world languisheth and fadeth away, the haughty people of the earth do languish. The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant. Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left."
The Prophet Malachi, describing the same scene and the same period of calamity, says: "For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch."
The psalmist David, in the majesty of his prophetic power, has left us a warning also, when he says: "The mighty God, even the Lord, hath spoken, and called the earth from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof. Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined. Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour before him and it shall be very tempestuous round about him. He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the earth, that he may judge his people. Gather my saints together unto me; those that have made a covenant with me by sacrifice. And the heavens shall declare his righteousness: for God is judge himself."
Having, then, knowledge of these things, and the voice of God being unto us to meet together, and make a covenant with our God by sacrifice we have given heed thereunto, and are here this day as witnesses for God, that he has not spoken in vain, neither has he said in vain. But the day and hour of his judgment sleepeth not, neither do they slumber; and whether men believe or do not believe, it alters not the word which God has caused to be spoken, but come it must and come it will, and that to their astonishment, the confusion and the dismay of thousands who believe not; neither will they regard until overtaken by it as a thief in the night, and sudden destruction come upon them, and there be none to deliver. Knowing therefore the terrors of the Lord, we warn our fellow men, not only by precept, but example also, by leaving our former house, to which we were bound by the strongest ties, suffering a sacrifice of the greatest share of our earthly possessions. Many of us in times past were rich; but for Jesus' sake and the command of our God we have become poor, as he (Christ) became poor for our sakes, so in like manner we follow his example, and become poor for his sake.

(page 164)


their natural inclinations. We acknowledge the strength of this criticism, yet as men we can but admire the manhood, patriotism, and heroism that strikes in defense of home and liberty. While we acknowledge, with regret, the weaknesses of our fathers, we hope we shall always honor them for the strength and virtue they displayed in these dark hours when harassed by foes and betrayed by friends.

And as Moses left Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king, and refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God than enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season, having respect to the recompense of reward, so do we. We choose to suffer affliction with the people of God rather than enjoy the flatteries of the world for a season. It is not because we cannot if we were so disposed enjoy both the honors and flatteries of the world, but we have voluntarily offered them in sacrifice, and the riches of the world also, for a more durable substance. Our God has promised us a reward of eternal inheritance, and we have believed his promise; and though we wade through great tribulations, we are in nothing discouraged, for we know he that has promised is faithful. The promise is sure and the reward is certain. It is because of this that we have taken the spoiling of our goods. Our cheeks have been given to the smiters, and our heads to those who have plucked off the hair. We have not only when smitten on one cheek turned the other, but we have done it again and again, until we are wearied of being smitten and tired of being trampled upon. We have proved the world with kindness; we have suffered their abuse without cause, with patience, and have endured without resentment until this day, and still their persecutions and violence do not cease.
But, from this day and this hour we will suffer it no more. We take God and all the holy angels to witness this day that we warn all men, in the name of Jesus Christ, to come on us no more forever; for, from this hour, we will bear it no more: our rights shall no more be trampled on with impunity; the man, or the set of men, who attempts it, does it at the expense of their lives. And that mob that comes on us to disturb us it shall be between us and them a war of extermination; for we will follow them till the last drop of their blood is spilled, or else they will have to exterminate us; for we will carry the seat of war to their own houses and to their own families and one party or the other shall be utterly destroyed. Remember it then, all men! We will never be the aggressors; we will infringe on the rights of no people, but shall stand for our own until death.
We claim our own rights, and are willing that all others shall enjoy theirs. No man shall be at liberty to come into our streets to threaten us with mobs, for if he does, he shall atone for it before he leaves the place; neither shall he be at liberty to vilify and slander any of us, for suffer it we will not in this place. We therefore take all men to record this day, that we proclaim our liberty this day, as did our fathers; and we pledge this day to one another, our fortunes, our lives, and our sacred honors, to be delivered from the persecutions which we have had to endure for the last nine years, or nearly that time. Neither will we indulge any man or set of men in instituting vexatious lawsuits against us, to cheat us out of our rights; if they attempt it, we say woe be unto them! We this day, then, proclaim ourselves free, with a purpose and a determination that never can be broken,-"no, never! no, never! no, never!!!"-Hunt's Mormon War, pp. 167-180.

(page 165)


On July 8, 1838, the revelation on tithing was received. 6

According to Millennial Star two other revelations were given on the same day; one to William Marks, N. K. Whitney, and Oliver Granger; and one on the filling up of the Quorum of Twelve, naming John Taylor, John E. Page, Wilford Woodruff, and Willard Richards to fill the places of William E. McLellin, Lyman Johnson, Luke Johnson, and J. F. Boynton, who had apostatized; 7 but these last two revelations are not found in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants.

On July 26, 1838, a council composed of the First Presidency, the High Council, and the Bishop's court passed the following resolution:-

"That we use our influence to put a stop to the selling of

6 In answer to the question O Lord, show unto thy servants how much thou requirest of the properties of thy people for a tithing?
1. Verily, thus saith the Lord, I require all their surplus property to put into the hands of the bishop of my church of Zion, for the building of mine house, and for the laying the foundation of Zion, and for the priesthood, and for the debts of the presidency of my church; and this shall be the beginning of the tithing of my people; and after that, those who have thus been tithed, shall pay one tenth of all their interest annually; and this shall be a standing law unto them forever, for my holy priesthood saith the Lord.
2. Verily I say unto you, It shall come to pass that all those who gather unto the land of Zion shall be tithed of their surplus properties, and shall observe this law, or they shall not be found worthy to abide among you. And I say unto you, If my people observe not this law, to keep it holy, and by this law sanctify the land of Zion unto me, that my statutes and my judgments may be kept thereon, that it may be most holy, behold, verily I say unto you, It shall not be a land of Zion unto you; and this shall be an ensample unto all the stakes of Zion. Even so. Amen.
7 Verily, thus saith the Lord, let a conference be held immediately, let the Twelve be organized, and let men be appointed to supply the place of those who are fallen. Let my servant Thomas remain for a season in the land of Zion, to publish my word. Let the residue continue to preach from that hour, and if they will do this in all lowliness of heart in meekness and humility, and long-suffering, I the Lord, give unto them a promise that I will provide for their families, and an effectual door shall be opened for them, from henceforth; and next spring let them depart to go over the great waters, and there promulgate my gospel, the fullness thereof, and bear record of my name. Let them take leave of my saints in the city Far West, on the 26th day of April next, on the building spot of my house, saith the Lord.
Let my servant John Taylor, and also my servant John E. Page, and also my servant Wilford Woodruff, and also my servant Willard Richards be appointed to fill the places of those who have fallen, and be officially notified of their appointment.

(page 166)


liquors in the city Far West, or in our midst, that our streets may not be filled with drunkenness; and that we use our influence to bring down the price of provisions."-Millennial Star, vol. 16, p. 204.

On May 21, Apostles Kimball and Hyde arrived at Kirtland from their mission to England, and in the following July arrived in Far West. On July 29, 1838, they preached in Far West.

The third number of the Elders' Journal was published, with T. B. Marsh, Editor, about this time. On Sunday, August 5, several were confirmed, among them F. G. Williams, who had been rebaptized.

On August 6, at a mass meeting of the citizens, Elder Sidney Rigdon was recommended to the Postmaster General for appointment as postmaster at Far West, in place of W. W. Phelps, resigned. The same day it was resolved to start a weekly newspaper, to be edited by Sidney Rigdon. There was also a petition circulated to locate the county seat at Far West.

There was an election held August 6, 1838, at Gallatin, in Daviess County, at which an attempt was made to prevent the "Mormons" from voting; which resulted in a conflict, and was the beginning of the hostilities which finally resulted in so much suffering and the expulsion of the saints from the State.

Joseph Smith's account is as follows:-

"Some two weeks previous to this, Judge Morin, who lived at Millport, informed John D. Lee and Levi Stewart that it was determined by the mob to prevent the 'Mormons' from voting at the election on the sixth day of August, and thereby elect Colonel William P. Peniston, who led the mob in Clay County. He also advised them to go prepared for an attack, to stand their ground and have their rights.

"The brethren, hoping better things, gave little heed to Judge Morin's friendly counsel, and repaired to the polls at Gallatin, the shire town of Daviess County, without weapons.

"About eleven o'clock a. m. William P. Peniston ascended the head of a barrel and harangued the electors for the purpose of exciting them against the 'Mormons,' saying that the

(page 167)


'Mormon' leaders were a set of horse thieves, liars, counterfeiters, etc.; 'and you know they profess to heal the sick, cast out devils, etc.; and you know that is a damned lie;' that the members of the church were dupes, and not too good to take a false oath on any common occasion; that they would steal, and he did not conceive property safe where they were; that he was opposed to their settling there; and if they suffered the 'Mormons' to vote, the people would soon lose their suffrage; 'and,' said he, addressing the saints, 'I headed a mob to drive you out of Clay County, and would not prevent your being mobbed now:' when Richard (called Dick) Welding, the mob bully, just drunk enough for the occasion, began a discussion with Brother Samuel Brown by saying 'The Mormons were not allowed to vote in Clay County, no more than the damned negroes,' and attempted to strike Brown, who gradually retreated, parrying the blow with his umbrella, while Welding continued to press upon him, calling him a damned liar, etc., and attempting to repeat the blow on Brown.

"Perry Durphy attempted to suppress the difficulty by holding Dick's arm, when five or six of the mobbers seized Durphy and commenced beating him with clubs, boards, etc., and crying, 'Kill him, kill him, and God damn him, kill him,' when a general scuffle commenced with fist and clubs, the mobbers being about ten to one of the saints. Abraham Nelson was knocked down and had his clothes torn off, and while trying to get up was attacked again, when his brother, Hyram Nelson, ran in amongst them and knocked the mobbers down with the butt of his whip. Riley Stewart struck Dick Welding on the head, which brought him to the ground. The mob cried out, 'Dick Welding's dead, by God; who killed Dick?' And they fell upon Riley, knocked him down, kicked him, and hallooed, 'Kill him, God damn him, kill him; shoot him, by God,' and would have killed him, had not John L. Butler sprung in amongst them and knocked them down. During about five minutes it was one continued knockdown, when the mob dispersed to get firearms.

"Very few of the brethren voted. Riley, escaping across the river, had his wounds dressed and returned home.

(page 168)


"Butler called the brethren together and made a speech, saying, 'We are American citizens; our fathers fought for their liberty, and we will maintain the same principles,' etc.; when the authorities of the county came to them and requested them to withdraw, stating that it was a premeditated thing to prevent the 'Mormons' voting.

"The brethren held a council about one fourth of a mile out of town, where they saw mobbing recruits coming in, in small parties, from five and ten to twenty-five in number, armed with clubs, pistols, dirks, knives, and some guns, cursing and swearing.

"The brethren not having arms, thought it wisdom to return to their farms, collect their families, and hide them in a thicket of hazel bush, which they did, and stood sentry around them through the night, while the women and children lay on the ground in the rain.

"Tuesday morning, 7th. A report came to Far West, by way of those not belonging to the church, that at the election at Gallatin yesterday two or three of our brethren were killed by the Missourians, and left upon the ground, and not suffered to be interred; that the brethren were prevented from voting, and a majority of the inhabitants of Daviess County were determined to drive the saints from the county.

"On hearing this report I started for Gallatin to assist the brethren, accompanied by President Rigdon, Brother Hyrum Smith, and fifteen or twenty others, who were armed for their own protection; and the command was given to George W. Robinson.

"On our way we were joined by the brethren from different parts of the country, some of whom were attacked by the mob, but we all reached Colonel Wight's that night in safety, where we found some of the brethren who had been mobbed at Gallatin, with others, waiting for our counsel. Here we received the cheering intelligence that none of the brethren were killed, although several were badly wounded.

"From the best information about one hundred and fifty Missourians warred against from six to twelve of our brethren, who fought like lions. Several Missourians had their sculls cracked. Blessed be the memory of those few brethren

(page 169)


who contended so strenuously for their constitutional rights and religious freedom, against such an overwhelming force of desperadoes.

"Wednesday, 8th. After spending the night in counsel at Colonel Wight's, I rode out with some of the brethren to view the situation of affairs in that region, and, among others, called on Adam Black, justice of the peace and judge elect of Daviess County, who had some time previous sold his farm to Brother Vinson Knight, and received part pay according to agreement, and afterwards united himself with a band of mobbers to drive the saints from and prevent their settling in Daviess County. On interrogation he confessed what he had done, and in consequence of this violation of his oath as magistrate we asked him to give us some satisfaction so that we might know whether he was our friend or enemy, whether be would administer the law in justice; and politely requested him to sign an agreement of peace. But being jealous, he would not sign it, but said he would write one himself to our satisfaction, and sign it, which he did, as follows:-

"I, Adam Black, a Justice of the Peace of Davies county, do hereby Sertify [Certify] to the people, coled Mormin, [called Mormon] that he is bound to suport [support] the Constitution of this State, and of the United State, and he is not attached to any mob, nor will not attach himself to any such people, and so long as they will not molest me, I will not molest them. This the 8th day of August, 1838.

"'Adam Black , J. P.'

"Hoping he would abide his own decision and support the law, we left him in peace, and returned to Colonel Wight's at Adam-ondi-ahman.

"In the evening some of the citizens from Millport called on us, and we agreed to meet some of the principal men of the county in council at Adam-ondi-ahman the next day at twelve o'clock. . . .

"The committee assembled at Adam-ondi-ahman at twelve, according to previous appointment; viz., on the part of citizens, Joseph Morin, senator elect; John Williams, representative elect; James B. Turner, clerk of the circuit court,

(page 170)


and others; on the part of the saints, Lyman Wight, Vinson Knight, John Smith, Reynolds Cahoon, and others. At this meeting both parties entered into a covenant of peace, to preserve each other's rights, and stand in their defense; that if men should do wrong, neither party should uphold them or endeavor to screen them from justice, but deliver up all offenders to be dealt with according to law and justice. The assembly dispersed on these friendly terms, myself and friends returning to Far West, where we arrived about midnight and found all quiet. . . .

"The spirit of mobocracy continued to stalk abroad, notwithstanding all our treaties of peace, as will be seen by the following affidavit:-

"'State of Missouri, Ray County.

"Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, judge of the fifth judicial circuit, William P. Peniston, and makes oath that he has good reason to believe, and that he verily does believe, that there is now collected and embodied in the county of Daviess, a large body of armed men, whose movements and conduct are of a highly insurrectionary and unlawful character; that they consist of about five hundred men, and that they, or a part of them, to the number of one hundred and twenty, have committed violence against Adam Black, by surrounding his house and taking him in a violent manner, and subjecting him to great indignities, by forcing him under threats of immediate death to sign a paper writing of a very disgraceful character, and by threatening to do the same to all the old settlers and citizens of Daviess County; and that they have, as a collected and armed body, threatened to put to instant death this affiant on sight; and that he verily believes they will accomplish that act without they are prevented; and also they have threatened the same to William Bowman and others; and this affiant states that he verily believes all the above facts to be true, and that the body of men now assembled do intend to commit great violence to many of the citizens of Daviess County, and that they have already done so to Adam Black; and this affiant verily believes, from information of others, that Joseph Smith, Jr., and Lyman Wight are the leaders of this body of armed men,

(page 171)


and the names of others thus combined are not certainly known to this affiant; and he further states the fact to be that it is his opinion, and he verily believes, that it is the object of this body of armed men to take vengeance for some injuries, or imaginary injuries, done to some of their friends, and to intimidate and drive from the county all the old citizens, and possess themselves of their lands, or to force such as do not leave to come into their measures and submit to their dictation.

"'William P. Peniston.

"'Sworn to and subscribed before me the undersigned judge as aforesaid, this 10th day of August, 1838.

"'Austin A. King.'

"The above was also sworn to by William Bowman, Wilson McKinney, and John Netherton. So it is that when men's hearts become so hard and corrupt as to glory in devising, robbing, plundering, mobbing, and murdering innocent men, women, and children by wholesale, they will more readily swear to lies than speak the truth.

"At this time some of the brethren had removed with their families from the vicinity of Gallatin, to Diahman and Far West, for safety.

"Saturday, 11th. This morning I left Far West with my council and Elder Almon W. Babbitt, to visit the brethren on the forks of Grand River, who had come from Canada with Elder Babbitt, and settled at that place contrary to counsel.

"In the afternoon, after my departure, a committee from Ray County arrived at Far West, to inquire into the proceedings of our society in going armed into Daviess County, complaint having been entered in Ray County by Adam Black, William P. Peniston, and others. The committee from Ray requested an interview with a committee of Caldwell, and a general meeting was called at the city hall at six in the evening, when it was stated that they were assembled to take into consideration the doings of the citizens of Ray County, wherein they have accused the 'Mormons' of this place of breaking the peace, in defending their rights and

(page 172)


those of their brethren in the county of Daviess; and the meeting organized by appointing Bishop E. Partridge chairman and George W. Robinson clerk.

"'Resolved 1st. That a committee of seven be appointed to confer with the committee from Ray.

"'Resolved 2d. That this committee with their secretary be authorized to answer such questions as may be offered by the committee from Ray, and as are named in the document presented this meeting, purporting to be the preamble and resolutions of the citizens of Ray.

"'Resolved 3d. That whereas the document referred to has no date or signature, our committee judge of the fact, and act accordingly.

"'Resolved 4th. That our committee report their proceedings to this meeting as soon as possible.

"'Edward Partridge, Chairman.

"'Geo. Robinson., Clerk.'

. . . "Sunday, 12th. I continued with the brethren at the forks of Grand River, offering such counsel as their situation required. . . .

"Monday, 13th. I returned with my council to Far West. We were chased by some evil designing men, ten or twelve miles, but we eluded their grasp. When within about eight miles of home we met some brethren, who had come to inform us that a writ had been issued by Judge King for my arrest and that of Lyman Wight, for attempting to defend our rights against the mob. . . .

"Thursday, 16th, I spent principally at home.

"The sheriff of Daviess, accompanied by Judge Morin, called and notified me that he had a writ for to take me to Daviess County, on trial, for visiting that county on the seventh instant.

"It had been currently reported that I would not be apprehended by legal process, and that I would not submit to the laws of the land; but I told the sheriff that I calculated always to submit to the laws of our country, but I wished to be tried in my own county, as the citizens of Daviess County were highly exasperated at me, and that the laws of the country gave me this privilege. Upon hearing this the

(page 173)


sheriff declined serving the writ, and said he would go to Richmond and see Judge King on the subject. I told him I would remain at home until his return.

"The sheriff returned from Richmond and found me at home (where I had remained during his absence), and informed me very gravely that I was out of his jurisdiction, and that he could not act in Caldwell, and retired."-Millennial Star, vol. 16, pp. 222, 229-231.

Of these events Parley P. Pratt writes:-

"Soon after these things the war clouds began again to lower with dark and threatening aspect. The rebellious party in the counties around had long watched our increasing power and prosperity with greedy and avaricious eyes, and they had already boasted that as soon as we had made some fine improvements and a plentiful crop they would drive us from the State and again enrich themselves with the spoils. Accordingly at an election held in Daviess County the robbers undertook to drive our people from the poll box, and threatened to kill whoever should attempt to vote.

"But some were determined to enjoy their right or die; they therefore went forward to vote, but were seized by the opposing party and attacked, and thus a fight commenced. But some of our people knocked down several of the robbers, and thus cleared the ground and maintained their rights, though vastly unequal in numbers. The news of this affair soon spread far and wide, and caused the people to rally, some for liberty and some to support the robbers in their daring outrages. About one hundred and fifty of our people went the next day to the residence of the leaders in this outrage, and soon an agreement was signed for peace. But this was of short duration, for the conspirators were stirred up throughout the whole State, being alarmed for fear the Mormons, as they called them, should become so formidable as to maintain their rights and liberties, insomuch that they could no more drive and plunder them. About this time meetings were held by the robbers in Carroll, Saline, and other counties, in which they openly declared their treasonable and murderous intentions of driving the citizens who belonged to our society from their counties, and

(page 174)


if possible from the State. Resolutions to this effect were published in the journals of upper Missouri, and this without a single remark of disapprobation."-Persecution of the Saints, pp. 58, 59.

"The History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri," has the following:-

"At the August election, 1838, a riot occurred at Gallatin between the Mormons and the Gentiles. The latter would not allow the Mormons to vote, and it is admitted were the aggressors. Two Gentiles were killed and half a dozen more wounded. Both parties then armed to defend themselves, and a sort of guerrilla warfare was kept up in the county for some weeks. The people of Daviess and Livingston petitioned Gov. Boggs to remove the Mormons from the State.

"Early in September a number of the citizens of Daviess assembled at Millport, near Adam-ondi-ahman, and began a raid on the Mormons. According to the journal of Hyrum Smith, their conduct was outrageous. It says the Gentiles 'took away our hogs and cattle, threatened us with extermination or utter extinction, saying that they had a cannon, and that there should be no compromise only at its mouth. They frequently took our men, women, and children prisoners, whipping them and lacerating their bodies with hickory withes, and tying some of them to trees and leaving them in most uncomfortable positions without food and water for two or three days.' Much worse offenses were also charged.

"Down in Ray County, along the northern border, the Gentile settlers were (or pretended to be) apprehensive of forays upon them from the Mormons in Caldwell. Captain Samuel Bogart went to Major General D. R. Atchison, at Liberty, who was then in command of this military division, and presented a petition to be allowed to form a company to 'clean out' the Mormons if they should invade Ray County territory, and to patrol the country along the northern border of Ray and keep watch and ward against the 'Joe Smithites.'

"The Mormons of Daviess dispatched messengers to General Atchison and to Judge Austin A. King, at Richmond,

(page 175)


then the judge of this circuit, demanding assistance. General Atchison returned with the messengers, went immediately to Diahman, and from thence to Millport, and found the facts substantially true as they had been reported to him-that the Gentile citizens of Daviess County, to the number of two hundred and fifty or three hundred, were assembled in a hostile attitude and threatening the utter extermination of the Mormons. He also found that the Mormons had settled in the county with the full permission of the resident citizens at the time.

"General Atchison hastily returned to Clay and ordered out certain detachments of the militia of his division to proceed to Daviess County and protect the Mormons and preserve the peace generally. Perhaps five hundred troops marched to Diahman. Among these were some companies from Carroll and Saline Counties, who had marched up Grand River, camping the first night out in Daviess near the old blockhouse on Splawn's ridge, in the central part of Daviess, east of Gallatin, near Millport, and the next night at Diahman. Though the troops were sent out to protect the Mormons, they were heartily opposed to them and in sympathy with their enemies, and had matters come to a fight would most certainly have taken sides with the latter. General Atchison, seeing this, determined to evacuate the country as soon as a fair semblance of peace could be observed. He remained in camp a few days near Diahman, and then marched his troops away, fearing every hour that they would unite with those he had come to put down.

"Even before the militia had disbanded or left Daviess County, the Gentiles declared and began open warfare against the Mormons, firing upon them whenever they met them, burning a number of their houses, and taking possession of their horses, and driving off their cattle. The Mormons soon retaliated. 'The prophet,' Joseph Smith, sent them from Far West a reinforcement of fifty men under Captain Seymour Brunson (or Brownson). Colonel Lyman Wight called out every able-bodied Mormon man or boy capable of carrying and handling a gun."-Pp. 126, 127.

Thus was inaugurated what is known as the '"Mormon

(page 176)


War." By both "Mormon" and "Gentile" writers it is admitted that the Missourians were the aggressors. Whether the "Mormons" were justified in resisting or not we leave the reader to judge.

(page 177)

Previous chapter Previous chapter Table of Contents Table of Contents Next chapter Next chapter