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ON July 3, 1880, Elder J. L. Bear wrote from Zürich, Switzerland, giving an account of a smooth passage across the Atlantic; also of a pleasant journey across the continent until he reached his native land. He met much opposition and persecution after his arrival. He says: "Since my arrival I have preached every Sabbath in a private house not belonging to any of the Saints, with good attention of those who listened, and I have to say not to my honor, but to the honor and glory of God, that I felt every time the power, influence, and assistance of the Holy Spirit, as I never felt it before; I am also again master of the language, which I first thought would hinder me considerably in preaching."

The following extract from his letter will give an idea of the conditions obtaining, and of the hardships endured:

Times are very hard here. The farmers are complaining greatly. The outlook for this year is not flattering either; breadstuff is very high, and wages are low; hard, hard for the poor.

I have worked in good weather for farmers but have not received one cent yet, and then the work is generally hard, they take out all the strength of a man and then afterwards complain that a person has not worked enough to entitle him to his wages, so it happened to me I worked for a man two days in the potatoes and two days in haying, and had to

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work like a tiger, now he blackens me of not performing enough and wants to give me twelve cents a day. . . .

I got the epitome of faith printed here, one thousand copies for sixteen francs (three dollars and twenty cents), in larger letters than in our own printing, which I distribute among the people. I can get the Plan of Salvation printed, one thousand copies for fourteen to fifteen dollars, in a small printing-office, where I got the above printed, but they have no plates; so I went to Zürich in a larger establishment; there they asked me twenty dollars for the printing and about fourteen dollars for the plates. Tracts I must have, there is no question, and be therefore kind enough to send me means to get some tracts printed, and I believe the Plan of Salvation is one of the best we have, I have the translation yet. It was preserved here so please make no delay about it, if the work has to be prosecuted, and send me the means at once. I can exchange greenbacks very well here, better than gold.

The Herald, the welcome messenger, comes regularly; O, if only the Saints here could read the same, it would encourage them greatly, but everything has its time.-The Saints' Herald, vol. 27, p. 256.

An editorial in the Herald for July 15, contains some excellent suggestions regarding church government and the safeguards thrown around the church in the law. For the sake of these things we insert it. It is as follows:

The Saints can have no positive assurance that any man in their association may not and will not fall into personal transgression, or become the prey of personal vanity and ambition, through which he may make the attempt to lead disciples after him. But that the church will suffer any serious loss by the Saints being led away after him, depends whether the laws by which the liberties and safety of the body are secured are correctly known, and there be found men of courage to see them rightly administered; as there is ample assurance given to the church that they may not be led away after false doctrines, by which their liberties shall be lost.

Before any new and false doctrine, though advanced by the presiding elder of the church, could be accepted to any great extent, to the subversion of the faith of the many, thus endangering the leading away the church, it is subject to challenge from any one who may deem it important, and then must pass the ordeal provided in the church articles.

There are three bodies of judges who may pass upon the matter: the Presidency, the Twelve, and the Seventy; and while these quorums are filled with reasonably fearless and independent thinkers, there is little danger of any serious schism, by reason of ambitious leaders.

But under the supposition that the dangerous element lies lurking in the body first named, the Presidency, there remains the other two bodies, consisting of a larger number of men, where, as a matter of course, there

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is less probability of collusion and wrong-doing as a body, from either of which a check may come, and before the one supposed to be seeking to subvert could make a successful beginning, either one or the other of these larger bodies must agree, thus forming a majority of two-thirds of three holding concurrent deciding authority.

If these bodies, the Twelve and Seventy, understand the law, and comprehend the value of the guarantee given by this three-fold concurrence of deciding power, they would need to be weak as men, if any serious falling away, because of ambition to command by new laws and doctrines, could occur.

But are these quorums composed of weak men, in the sense implied that of submission to dogmatic assumption, the domination of authority? Those who know the men composing the leading quorum of spiritual authorities in the church, know full well that a body of men more unlikely to yield in tame submission to what they deemed radically wrong, it would be difficult to find. Ten more fearless, independent thinkers, are not found grouped together in one body than the apostolic quorum. While, perhaps, not loud nor boisterous, each one in methods of thought and power of decision, stands alone, rules of law and right their guides, and acknowledging but one Master-the Christ. In dealing with their fellows, revering worth, integrity, merit; but worshiping [worshipping] none-fearing none. From our knowledge of these men, and fortunately for the church we know all of them, we can not conceive it possible that they could be made tools for some ambitious, aspiring man; or dupes to a gross deception; or even silent, passive, stolid lookers-on when vaulting, craving minds might essay to mislead. All of them know how to speak, and that effectively, when it is necessary to speak. They are impervious to bribery where place and power are likely to be offered; not sufficiently covetous to be open to the allurements of wealth; not fearful enough to be afraid of man's wrath, and not weak enough to be cajoled and flattered; and from these considerations we can see no likelihood that the Twelve can be made a party to the enslaving the Saints, should such a thing be attempted. . . .

What we have said of this body of spiritual laborers and advisers, is true of the second-the Seventy; though not to the same marked degree, except in individual instances. Therefore, before such a doctrine as polygamy could become rooted and grounded as a dogma of the church, or any other equally at variance with the good sense of the church, and the law already given to govern it, there would need to be collusion between two of these three bodies, in which the entire number would have to acquiesce; and not till then would there be grounds to apprehend danger. Such a contingency is so remote a possibility, that we deem the liberties of the Saints tolerably safe. The reasoning is equally good if it be supposed that the questionable and dangerous philosophy of doctrine or practice originate in either one of the three bodies referred to.

It is said that in the lifetime of Joseph and Hyrum, an additional

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council of fifty was instituted, and the men appointed thereto; to which council all revelations were to be submitted to be tested; and if they passed the test it could be proclaimed as the word of the Lord; if it did not, there was a necessity for an inquiry. We know of no law permitting the reorganization of this council of fifty; and hence, conclude that until a privilege or command authorizes it, the church may safely rely on the rule of law governing and the integrity of the men whose prerogative it is to determine.

About this time a periodical called the Gospel Monitor was started at Hannibal, Missouri, J. J. Crammer publisher. It opposed the work of the Reorganization and advocated the right of David Whitmer to lead the church. Whether the Monitor received the indorsement [endorsement] of Elder Whitmer or not we do not know.

August 2, G. H. Graves, the colored missionary to the South, wrote as follows from Butler County, Alabama:

I began preaching the next evening after I arrived, and I have traveled two hundred ten miles on foot and fifty miles by wagon, and have baptized one person at Garland and five at Butler Springs. The prospects look good here. I have had much trouble, but the Lord has given me power to overcome.

Subsequently he wrote of the baptism of five more and the organization of a branch of ten members. Later he wrote as follows:

I have had much opposition since I last wrote you, but in the midst of it the Lord has blessed me. I have also baptized two more, making six with those I baptized the 4th. I organized a branch consisting of these and five received by letter from the Lone Star Branch, eleven in all. We named it the St. Joseph Branch, at Kempville, Monroe County, Alabama. . . .

There is a great call here for preachers, both white and colored ones. I have been preaching every night for three weeks in this place. I debated with a Methodist minister the 16th and the people decided in my favor, as having the best of the argument. One woman gave her name for baptism.

About this time a circular was published in England signed by Joseph Dewsnup, C. D. Norton, C. H. Hassall, George Greenwood, Thomas Bradshaw, J. H. Newstead, and H. C. Crum, a committee appointed by the European Mission conference, asking for financial aid to publish a paper to be known as the Saints' Guardian in the

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interest of the Saints in Britain. This movement did not materialize.

The semiannual conference convened near Council Bluffs, Iowa, September 12, 1880; Joseph Smith, president; H. A. Stebbins, secretary; E. T. Dobson, assistant secretary. The following ministers (present) reported: A. H. Smith, James Caffall, J. R. Lambert, J. H. Lake, Z. H. Gurley, E. C. Briggs, Charles Derry, M. H. Forscutt, Glaud Rodger, E. C. Brand, J. C. Foss, Heman C. Smith, Columbus Scott, M. T. Short, D. H. Bays, J. F. McDowell, W. T. Bozarth, G. S. Hyde, J. F. Mintun, Joseph Luff, R. M. Elvin, A. J. Cato, and Rudolph Etzenhouser. The following reported by letter: P. N. Brix, W. W. Blair, T. W. Smith, W. H. Kelley, R. J. Anthony, J. M. Wait, G. E. Deuel, F. P. Scarcliff, Hiram Robinson, J. W. Bryan, J. P. Knox, Clarence Saint Clair, G. S. Yerrington, and C. A. Wickes.

Board of Publication reported total resources $17,452.85; total liabilities $6,646.52; net value of assets $10,806.33; cash receipts since last report, including balance on hand, $7,084.45; cash expended, $7,041.47; on hand, $42.98.

I. L. Rogers and David Dancer resigned as members of the board, and W. H. Curwen and Phineas Cadwell were chosen to succeed them. Joseph Smith, W. W. Blair, and G. A. Blakeslee were sustained as members of the board. The following was read and referred to a general assembly:

Whereas, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, in conference assembled at Gallands Grove, Shelby County, Iowa, in the month of September, 1878, did decide, "That the Holy Scriptures as translated, corrected, and revised by Joseph Smith the Martyr, the Book of Mormon, and the revelations as contained in the book of Doctrine and Covenants be accepted as standard of authority on an points of doctrine in said church," and

Whereas, There was action taken at the semiannual conference held at Gallands Grove, Shelby County, Iowa, in September, 1879, which we believe is not in harmony with the teachings of those books above referred to, therefore, be it

Resolved, By the Little Sioux District of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, that we respectfully ask the semiannual conference to be held at Parks Mills, Pottawattamie County, Iowa, to clearly define if

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any elder can be a true representative of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and reject any of the revelations found in the book of Doctrine and Covenants. If so, which and how many; if so, if any elder can not reject all the revelations found in said book, and still be a fit representative of the church?

The following on the foundation of the church was read, and was also referred to a general assembly:

Whereas, There exists a diversity of opinion among the elders respecting the foundation of the church; some maintaining it to be revelation (Matthew 16:17, 18), others believing it to be apostles and prophets, with Jesus Christ as the chief corner-stone (Ephesians 2:50), while still another class believe it to be Christ Jesus (1 Corinthians 3:11). And,

Whereas, It is believed to be of paramount importance that the church should be a unit on questions of such magnitude, therefore, be it

Resolved, That Jesus Christ, in his divine character, is the foundation of the church.


The following was also referred to a general assembly:

Whereas, The financial affairs of the church are not in as good condition as we would desire, and thereby the promulgation of the gospel is much hindered; and

Whereas, We have almost entirely departed from the law concerning missionary labor, the ministry almost invariably first making a call on the Bishop for money before they attempt to start out to preach; therefore be it

Resolved, That we recommend the ministry in the future to try and comply with the law, as far as practicable, which says, "Therefore let no man among you [for this commandment is unto all the faithful who are called of God in the church unto his ministry] from this hour take purse or scrip, that goeth forth to proclaim this gospel."

The general assembly has not been called, and hence these questions have not been thus officially settled.

A remarkable agreement between the Quorums of High Priests and Seventy was disclosed by their reports presented to the conference on the same day, though neither had knowledge of the action of the other until read in conference.

The High Priests presented the following:

We, your brethren, members of the High Priests' Quorum, have had two meetings on the conference ground, and considering it important that steps be taken to facilitate missionary labor, have decided upon, and herewith submit for your approval or disapproval, the following preamble and resolutions, as expressing our unanimous opinion on the question on which it treats:

Whereas, First, the revelations accepted by the church make it the

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duty of the church to liberate the hands of the Twelve and the Seventy; and

Whereas, Second, the Twelve and the Seventy, as the especial witnesses of the church to the world, should first go as missionaries into all the world, and

Whereas, Third, we believe that the funds of the general church treasury should be first used to supply the families of the Twelve and Seventy, before the families of the high priests, elders, or priests are supplied, or money employed to send high priests, elders, or priests to distant fields of labor, therefore be it hereby

Resolved, First, that no member of this, or of any quorum other than that of the Twelve and Seventy, should be sent out as missionaries under General Conference appointment, until all members of these two quorums shall have been sent, or shall have been excused for cause by proper authority, or shall have positively declined to go.

Second, That the members of the Twelve and the Seventy should be all assigned to missionary labor, in harmony with the law; the funds of the church be used for the prosecution of their missions, and the support of their families.

Third, That if the number of the Twelve and Seventy are insufficient to supply demands for general ministerial labor, and there be funds to sustain other families than those of these quorums, then members of other quorums may be chosen and sent by General Conference, and their families also supplied from the church treasury, impartially, with the families of the Twelve and the Seventy.

The Seventy presented the following:

Whereas, The general church funds have heretofore been used in sending out elders and priests as missionaries, instead of sending those whom the law directs as the proper ones who should have precedence; therefore be it

Resolved, That we recommend to this conference that the funds for missionary purposes be used to release, first, the quorums of the Twelve and Seventy, who should, properly, be the general and leading missionaries of the church to the world as the law directs. And we do hereby pledge ourselves to strive to magnify our calling as auxiliaries to the Quorum of the Twelve, in carrying the gospel to all nations, if the church will stand by and sustain us.

Both these reports were adopted as expressing the views of the conference.

The following resolution was adopted:

Whereas, Action has been had that moneys shall only be paid out of the church treasury to members of the Quorum of the Twelve and of the Seventy; therefore, be it

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Resolved, That if there are any elders laboring in distant fields who are not members of the above quorums, they shall receive, if necessary, aid to return home.

First Quorum of Elders reported that they had dropped Joseph A. Crawford from the quorum.

The Third Quorum of Elders reported that they had received into the quorum Josiah Curtis, J. C. McIntyre, and John Chapman, Sr.

The following memorial was presented by Elder J. W. Briggs:

Memorial to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, in General Conference Assembled; Brethren: At the last annual Conference your memorialist submitted a summary of the case prosecuted against him for the last three years, alleging therein that all the issues in the case were, by the report of the Quorum of the Twelve, and the adoption of the same by the conference of September, 1879, disposed of, save one, to wit, that of the gathering, and this allegation was not denied nor controverted by my accusers, but acquiesced in by the action therein being confined to the said remaining question; and upon this question your memorialist did in said summary distinctly accept the finding of the Quorum of the Twelve thereon; as his belief and position on that question, and alleging that this is the position of the church, as shown by our acts in three General Conferences, to wit, that of 1852, 1863, and 1876, and this allegation was not denied by my accusers in their answer, and therefore must be deemed admitted. And further, your memorialist asked relief from the hasty and unjust act of the preceding semiannual conference. Upon which the late annual conference passed the following preamble and resolution-and proviso attached:

"Whereas, In his letter to this conference-appealing from the decision of last semiannual conference, a decision based upon the findings of the Quorum of the Twelve in his case, Bro. Jason W. Briggs concedes the position assumed by the Reorganized Church on the subject of the gathering, and Whereas, In so doing he virtually recedes from the position charged against him on this question, be it hereby

"Resolved, That he be exonerated from the disability attaching to him now, as far as such disability results from the finding of the Quorum of the Twelve in his case and the action of the semiannual conference thereon, in which he was declared guilty of teaching contrary to the revelations of God and the faith of the church on the subject of the gathering. Provided that he shall in express terms recede from the position the Quorum of the Twelve found him guilty of occupying, in antagonism to the church."

Now I object to the statement in this preamble, that in conceding the position of the church I virtually "recede from the position charged" as

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found by the Quorum of the Twelve, but instead I declared distinctly in that paper that the finding of the quorum is correct and that the position so attributed to me was the declared position of the church as shown by its records upon this subject. And as I did not in that paper "virtually recede" from that position, I can not "in express terms recede" as required by the said proviso. I asked the annual conference to pass upon the issue and justify me or justify my accusers, and they gave me the foregoing-I asked for justice and was offered an inconsistency-"I asked for bread and was offered a stone." I therefore renew my petition for justice at your hands. To wit, to pass upon the remaining question, which is, Is there now a place to which the Saints are commanded to gather-is there a law now in force requiring a gathering to any State or place? It is fast becoming apparent to all reflecting minds that have followed this case, that the church has been misled by my accusers to the great injury of the faith of Saints and creating an insurmountable stumbling-block to the honest inquirer after truth.

I therefore respectfully ask that you rescind the acts of the late annual and the last semiannual conference complained of, and to reaffirm the act of the annual conference of 1878, upon clause four of the report of the Quorum of the Twelve upon the question of gathering.

Respectfully submitted,


WHEELERS GROVE, Iowa, September 12, 1880.

-The Saints' Herald, vol. 27, p. 318.

This was finally disposed of by the adoption of the following:

Whereas, The church affirmed the report of the Presidency on the Decatur District resolution, in the fall of 1879; and

Whereas, Bro. J. W. Briggs has expressed, and still does express his willingness to stand with the church upon said basis; therefore be it

Resolved, That he be now released from all disability placed upon him by acts of former conferences.

Elder Briggs accepted this action and occupied a position on the platform with his quorum. A report from the Quorum of the Twelve on missions was considered, and after being amended, was adopted, as follows:

The Quorum of the Twelve have held six meetings, and have rejoiced in the brightening prospects before the church. They have expressed a willingness and determination to labor as the law directs, as soon as the church is in a proper financial condition to sustain their families.

At their first meeting, Monday, September 13, it was felt and expressed by all, that the Twelve and the Seventy should be the first to be placed and sustained in the field.

The following missions recommended by the President and

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members of the Quorum of Twelve were approved: J. W. Gillen, Australian Mission. William Nelson, released from the Tahiti Mission, the Bishop to send him money to return to San Francisco. David Brown, in charge of the Tahiti Mission. T. Taylor, president of the English Mission. J. L. Bear, Switzerland Mission. W. H. Kelley, T. W. Smith, James Caffall, Josiah J. H. Lake, and J. R. Lambert, in present fields. A. H. Smith, in charge of the state of Missouri, M. T. Short and W. T. Bozarth associated with him. E. C. Briggs, in charge of Southwestern Iowa. Z. H. Gurley, as circumstances permit. J. W. Briggs, as circumstances permit. C. Scott, G. Griffiths, and B. V. Springer, associated with W. H. Kelley. Heman C. Smith, in charge of the Southwestern Mission. J. F. McDowell, in present field. G. S. Hyde, Southwestern Iowa and Nebraska. D. H. Bays, Western Iowa and parts of Nebraska and Kansas. J. C. Foss, in charge of the Southeastern Mission. W. W. Blair, R. J. Anthony, G. E. Deuel, and E. C. Brand, Rocky Mountain Mission. P. N. Brix, Scandinavian Mission. J. H. Hansen was requested to take charge of Scandinavian Mission. Glaud Rodger, in his last appointment. F. P. Scarcliff, present field. John Thomas, Southeastern Mission. C. A. Wickes, Texas and Western Louisiana.

The Twelve also presented the following:

We recommend that all high priests, elders, priests, teachers, and deacons labor as circumstances permit, under mission, district, and branch authorities, and make themselves actively engaged in the cause of Christ, and by their diligence show a worthiness to be appointed to various fields of labor as soon as the church shall be in a condition to send forth more laborers.

Later the following resolution was adopted: "Resolved, That the Chicago Mission be continued as per order of last conference, and that Bro. M. H. Forscutt labor there in charge."

The Second Quorum of Elders reported having received J. H. Condit, Levi Gamet, and Egbert Bullard.

The Fourth Quorum of Elders reported having received Edward Boulson, W. H. Jordon, E. R. Lanphear, C. D. Stevens, and Edger Sherman. Levi Wilson was chosen

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second counselor to the president of the quorum. This choice was approved by the conference and Elder Wilson was accordingly ordained.

The First Quorum of Priests reported as having added the following to its number: J. R. Nicholas, J. F. Clemensen, J. J. Vickery, D. C. White, J. H. Merriam, James Buxton, A. D. Hougas, William Clow, Henry Roberts, Samuel Naiden, F. S. Gilliland, J. C. Tripp, Benjamin Kester, Milton Daugherty, B. M. Green, J. C. Johnson, Elisha McEvers, J. B. Gouldsmith, and Jacob Whitinger.

Several appeal cases were heard by special committees and disposed of. The committee on representation stated through its chairman, Joseph Smith, that it was not ready to report. It was continued. All missionaries hitherto appointed, and not reappointed or sustained at this session were released, and the following was adopted.

Whereas, Injury may result to the cause and perhaps also to individuals, in that the labors of some of the ministry may be lessened through misunderstanding as to the action of this conference in regard to sending only the Twelve and the Seventy into the field (unless sufficient means be in the church treasury to do otherwise), therefore be it

Resolved, That those of the ministry who were under General Conference appointment, but who are not named in the list of missions appointed at this session, neither have been individually released, nor otherwise provided for, are hereby recommended to district and mission authorities and conferences for appointment, either in those fields to which they were formerly assigned by the General Conference, or to other districts and regions where they may profitably work; and we also recommend such authorities or conferences to receive them in the same spirit as though they were sent by the General Conference; and furthermore we recommend that such districts and missions sustain such laborers with the necessary means, so far as is practicable and just, and this in order that the work of God may be prosecuted with no less vigor and success than has been heretofore. And we also recommend that all others who can labor to the benefit of the cause, be also in like manner appointed and sustained, according as the Spirit may direct and means and circumstances may justify or permit.

October 10, 1880, at a general conference of the Utah faction, the First Presidency of that church, which had been disorganized since the death of Brigham Young, was reorganized by choosing John Taylor president, with G. Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith counselors. At the

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same time F. M. Lyman, son of Amasa Lyman, and John Henry Smith, son of George A. Smith, were ordained and became members of the Quorum of Twelve.

The following concerning Lamoni, and other items, is from the editorial columns of the Herald for October 15:

On a recent visit to Lamoni, Decatur County, Iowa, we found a very decided improvement in the state of the country. A town of over two hundred inhabitants; with stores and business houses; blacksmith, wagon, and harness shops; with an active grain and stock business, give an appearance of thrift and enterprise quite gratifying to those interested. We found a most excellent feeling prevailing in regard to the settlement of the locality, and active preparations being made for a further increase. Crops this year have been fair, though hurt some by dry weather; the absence of frost up to October 2 greatly aided in overcoming this, however, and corn matured well. There has been considerable sickness the past summer, chiefly bilious and typhoid fevers; but the approach of cooler weather seemed to have a beneficial effect on the people. The air on some days was clear and bracing, seeming to impart snap and vigor to the system.

The Saints, as a whole, were and are anxious to know when the press is to be removed into their midst; but we could not assure them as to the time and event. We believe that a better community would be hard to find; we quite fell in love with the people and the country. We spoke to the Saints at their meeting-house (old quarters), and also spoke at Davis City, in the union church, owned by Mr. John Clark, a pleasant man, past middle age, and so liberal in view as to have erected a house in which all may meet and worship, without regard to denominational name. Bro. Z. H. Gurley fills regular appointments in this church each two weeks, and the interest is good.

Bro. O. B. Thomas held a debate with one Elder Ryan, down in the edge of Missouri, while we were at Lamoni, and acquitted himself well for the cause, so at least says report. Two good rains fell during our stay, and we saw the country wet and dry.

On October 27, 1880, Elder J. L. Bear wrote from Zürich, Switzerland, as follows:

I am still working for the cause of our Master, preaching every Sabbath in private houses; average attendance about twenty; good feeling prevails. Three again have covenanted with God, and rejoice in the gospel; some more are believing. Those who come to hear the word preached are astonished and surprised from where the knowledge and power comes that enables me to teach the gospel. I am thankful to God for the assistance of his Spirit; may he always be with me to lead and guide me in this great and glorious work. Persecutions have ceased to considerable extent; and some of the Saints were

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strengthened with dreams, which gave them plainly to understand that I was a servant of God.

What I am greatly in need of is the printed word. Is there no possibility to have some of our tracts here printed in German? I am very thankful to those who remembered me in the far-off land in sending me aid for my temporal support; may God bless them abundantly for the same, and that they may receive a hundredfold instead. I shall never forget them in my prayers. I ask for the prayers of all true and faithful Saints in behalf of my children, in the behalf of this mission, and myself, that I may accomplish the work intrusted to my care for the salvation of many souls to the glory and honor of God.-The Saints' Herald, vol. 27, p. 369.

October 30, Elder H. A. Stebbins severed his connection with the Herald as assistant editor, and engaged in business in Lamoni, Iowa, with David Dancer and A. S. Cochran.

Sometime in November a branch was organized at Brockton, Massachusetts, by T. W. Smith, of the Twelve.

The following is an extract from the message of President Hayes presented to Congress on December 6, 1880, with comments thereon by the editor of Herald, as found in the issue of December 15:

"It is the recognized duty and purpose of the people of the United States to suppress polygamy where it now exists in our Territories, and to prevent its extension. Faithful and zealous efforts have been made by the United States authorities in Utah to enforce the laws against it. Experience has shown that the legislation upon this subject, to be effective, requires extensive modification and amendment. The longer action is delayed the more difficult it will be to accomplish what is desired. Prompt and decided measures are necessary. The Mormon sectarian organization which upholds polygamy has the whole power of making and executing the local legislation of the Territory. By its control of the grand and petit juries it possesses large influence over the administration of justice. Exercising, as the heads of this sect do, the local political power of the Territory, they are able to make effective their hostility to the law of Congress on the subject of polygamy, and, in fact, do prevent its enforcement. Polygamy will not be abolished if the enforcement of the law depends on those who practice and uphold the crime. It can only be suppressed by taking away the political power of the sect which encourages and sustains it. The power of Congress to enact suitable laws to protect the Territories is ample. It is not a case for half-way measures. The political power of the Mormon sect is increasing; it controls now one of our wealthiest and most populous Territories. It is extending steadily into other territories. Wherever it goes

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it establishes polygamy and sectarian political power. The sanctity of marriage and the family relation are the corner-stone of our American society and civilization. Religious liberty and the separation of the church and state are among the elementary ideas of free institutions. To reëstablish the interests and principles which polygamy and Mormonism have imperiled, and to fully reopen to intelligent and virtuous immigrants of all creeds that part of our domain which has been, in a great degree, closed to general immigration by intolerant and immoral institutions, it is recommended that the government of the territory of Utah be reorganized.

"I recommend that Congress provide for the government of Utah by a governor and judges, or commissioners, appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate,-a government analogous to the provisional government established for the territory northwest of the Ohio by the ordinance of 1787. If, however, it is deemed best to continue the existing form of local government, I recommend that the right to vote, hold office, and sit on juries in the territory of Utah be confined to those who neither practice nor uphold polygamy. If thorough measures are adopted, it is believed that within a few years the evils which now afflict Utah will be eradicated, and that this territory will in good time become one of the most prosperous and attractive of the new States of the Union."

It should be remembered that when, in 1866, we were summoned before the territorial committee, as a witness upon Utah affairs, we did not advise new and oppressive legislative enactments; but did recommend that crime in Utah should be treated as crime in any other section of the country was and ought to be treated; holding that it was not the severity, but the surety of prosecution and punishment that deterred men from the commission of crimes against the law. It was our opinion then, it is our opinion now, that so long as those transgressors escaped punishment from the venality, or weakness of executors of the law, just so long would polygamy survive. We are not now, we never have been in favor of official and legal oppression, or mob violence; but, under the genius of the inspiration that declared, "he that keepeth the law of God hath no need to break the laws of the land," we are in favor of the arrest and just legal punishment of those who willfully and persistently continue to violate law.

Our Utah religionists told their people in 1866, that we went to Washington to incite the Government to hostility to them. We now give them another opportunity to make the same statement because our offense now is precisely what it was then; and we can see that President Hayes seems to be of the same opinion that we then gave, that certain punishment only, will be effectual to the suppression of that crime in Utah. . . .

Whatever Congress may do in the premises under this recommend of President Hayes, we trust that the language of the Book of Covenants

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may form the central idea of their legislation, wherein the subject with which they deal is clearly defined, "The crime of polygamy."

A peculiar condition grew out of the regular election of November, 1880, in Utah. Elder George Q. Cannon was the candidate for Congress of the Peoples' Party (or church party) the opposition known as the Liberal Party, chose as their standard-bearer Mr. Allen G. Campbell. On the face of the returns Mr. Cannon was elected by an overwhelming majority, receiving eighteen thousand five hundred sixty-eight votes to Mr. Campbell's thirteen hundred fifty-seven votes. Nevertheless, Mr. Campbell entered a protest against Mr. Cannon receiving the certificate of election on the grounds that Mr. Cannon was not a citizen, being foreign born and unnaturalized. Governor Murray sustained the protest, denying the certificate of election to Mr. Cannon and granting it to Mr. Campbell. After much agitation over all the country and a long delay the House committee on elections, to whom the contest had been referred, on February 25, 1882, decided to report Campbell not elected, Cannon not entitled to a seat, and that a vacancy exists in the representation of Utah.

At the time that Governor Murray denied the certificate to Mr. Campbell, The Saints' Herald expressed itself editorially, being of the opinion that Governor Murray had made a mistake, that it was his duty to have issued the certificate in harmony with the face of the returns; and that Mr. Campbell's redress was in contesting Mr. Cannon's seat before the Congress. The editor further expressed himself, as follows: "We believe that Congress would be justified in evicting Delegate George Q. Cannon, alleging as a reason, what Mr. Cannon can not deny, that he is a polygamist, having more than one wife, and therefore a bigamist, who should be expelled from the legislative halls of the nation."

Congress, however, failed to meet and settle this question in 1881 and 1882, and hence the necessity of it being settled more recently when confronted with the case of Brigham H. Roberts.

(page 329)

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