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JULY 1, 1871, President Smith published an article setting forth his views on the duties of teachers. (See The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, pp. 399-401.)

This summer, Elder G. R. Scogin, of Alabama, went to eastern Texas, and did some successful missionary work. Of this work he wrote, on July 10, 1871, from Nacogdoches, Texas, as follows-

"Thinking that you would be glad to hear from this part of the country, and to hear of the progress of the glorious tidings in the frontier counties of Texas, I write. There are some promising saints here. I have baptized fifteen in this country, and partly organized a branch. There are more that believe the gospel. There will be a conference held here, commencing on the 19th of August. My appointments are ahead till the fifth Sunday in this month. There is a great work to do here. Without help, I shall have to leave here. My temporal matters call me home for awhile. I will be able to return next spring by the help of the Lord. I preach from once to twice a week, and hold prayer meeting once a week. I want help-help in the ministry here. If there is an elder anywhere that can leave home, here is work."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 505.

About September 1, 1871, Elder Scogin left this work and returned to Alabama, since which the opening has not been followed up.

July 10, the Secretary made a report of the several quorums of the church. This will be instructive to those

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wishing to know the condition and personnel of the quorums. 1 He stated that the Quorum of Seventy had not reported to him. To cure this defect Elder T. W. Smith, secretary of the Quorum of Seventy, did, on August 8, send in the following list of seventies on the record of the quorum: A. M. Wilsey, C. G. Lanphear. George Rarick, L. W. Babbitt, W. H. Kelley, J. M. Wait, Jerome Ruby, J. L. Adams, Francis Reynolds, E. M. Wildermuth, J. W. Gillen, C. H. Jones,

1 To All Whom It May Concern:-The following named persons are members of the several quorums of the church with which their names stand connected, and the representation of their several standings therein is such as was made at the last General Conference of the church, and such as has been furnished me by the secretaries of the elders' quorums. Those who are represented as having been sustained, are recommended by the General Conference, or by their quorums, as authorized ministers, according to the degree and kind of authority they hold. The order in which they appear here, is that of their ordination, except the elders' quorums. Those not sustained appear last.
The Quorum of the First Presidency numbers two. Joseph Smith and William Marks, both sustained.
The Apostles' Quorum numbers seven, six of whom were sustained. Sustained: Jason W. Briggs, Zenos H. Gurley, Samuel Powers, William W. Blair, Edmund C. Briggs, and Josiah Ells. Not sustained, but no charge preferred, Reuben Newkirk, Jason W. Briggs, president; William W. Blair, secretary.
The High Council numbers eleven members, one, Dwight Webster, having died, and the vacancy not having been filled: John C. Gaylord, William Aldrich, George Morey, Edwin Cadwell, Jacob Doan, Oliver P. Dunham, Zenos Whitcomb, Lyman Hewitt, Winthrop H. Blair, Hiel Bronson, and Jesse Price. All sustained. Joseph Smith, president. No permanent secretary appointed.
The High Priests' Quorum numbers forty-three, forty-two of whom were sustained. Sustained: Wheeler Baldwin, Judah Griffith, Phineas Bronson, James M. Adams, Thomas Carrico, Stephen Richardson, James Whitehead, John C. Gaylord, William Aldrich, George Morey, Edwin Cadwell, Jacob Doan, Oliver P. Dunham, Zenos Whitcomb, Lyman Hewitt, Winthrop H. Blair, Isaac Sheen, Israel L. Rogers, James Newberry, Elijah B. Gaylord, John Landers, Benjamin Austin, Hugh Lytle, Thomas Dungan, James Anderson, William H. Hazzledine, Charles Derry, David M. Gamet, Joseph Parsons, George A. Blakeslee, Hiel Bronson, Ebenezer Robinson, Silas W. Condit, Jesse Price, Alexander H. Smith, Thomas Dobson, Mark H. Forscutt, John A. McIntosh, William Redfield, Henry J. Hudson, Alexander Hunt, and Hiram P. Brown. . . . Not sustained, charge preferred, Ebenezer Page. Isaac Sheen, president; Joseph Parsons, counselor; Mark H. Forscutt, secretary.
The Bishopric comprises three members: Israel L. Rogers, James Anderson, and David M. Gamet. Israel L. Rogers, president. No ordained counselor; but High Priest William Aldrich sustained as such with a proviso that he be ordained. The Bishopric was sustained.
The Seventies' Quorum has not been reported to the Secretary; hence no report can be given by him. Quorum was sustained. A. M. Wilsey, president; Thomas W. Smith, secretary.

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Nathan Lindsey, Jeremiah Jeremiah, S. J. Stone, Thomas E. Jenkins, J. T. Philips, B. V. Springer, T. W. Smith, G. W. Shaw, Thomas Revel, W. H. White, Daniel Bowen, Otis Shumway

The First Quorum of Elders numbers ninety-five, all of whom were sustained. Elijah Banta, J. S. Patterson, H. A. Stebbins, Horace Bartlett, E. W. Robinson, J. D. Bennett, A. Hendrickson, Mad Madison, David Powell, H. S. Dille, H. W. Pomeroy, William Arnold, Robert Warnock, James Horton, Nelson Van Fleet, Joseph Robinson, Valentine White, P. S. Wixom, W. F. Randall, Thomas Hougas, Andrew Hayer, Levi Lightfoot, C. C. Reynolds, R. J Benjamin, J. P. Dillen, Alvah Smith, G. H. Hilliard, John Sutton, George Hicklin, John Chisnall, Thomas Weeks, George Walker, Alfred White, E. M. White, G. E. Deuel, J. M. Putney, D. P. Hartwell, J. S. Snively, J. J. Kaster, William Anderson of St. Louis, Mathias Lampert, J. W. Mather, Edwin Stafford, F. P. Scarcliff, E. C. Brand, D. H. Bays, J. R. Badham, James Caffall, A. Metcalf, A. G. Weeks, J. D. Craven, Henry Halliday, J. W. Chatburn, Thomas Nutt, Thomas Thomas, James Thomas, D. K. Dodson, Daniel Hougas, J. S. Lee, R. J. Anthony, T. J. Franklin, Lehi Ellison, Stephen Wood, Lebrecht Bear, R. M. Elvin, George Braby, Elijah Cobb, Wesley Fletcher, W. W. Gaylord, William Powell, J. W. Brackenbury, David Williams, George Thomas, A. W. Moffett, George Derry, Eli Clothier, J. O. Clapp, S. S. Wilcox, William Woodhead, James Kemp, S. O. Waddell, E. F. Hyde, J. D. Jones, George Sweet, Calvin Beebe, Levi Graybill, E. Penrod, Joseph Boswell, John Lewis, James Hennifer, M. H. Bond, Asa Walden, Samuel Diggle, Samuel Wood, B. B. Brackenbury. . . . E. Banta, president; J. S. Patterson, counselor; Henry A. Stebbins, secretary.
The Second Quorum of Elders numbers ninety-six members, all of whom were sustained: William G. Harris, Henry Hart, Phineas Cadwell, Edwin Hulmes, Jesse Broadbent, D. H. Smith, Amos W. Bronson, George Sheidecker, Carl W. Lange, Thomas E. Lloyd, David Evans, L. B. Scott, James Woollams, Thomas France, Marion F. Cooper, John Lee, John Bierline, William Williams, William Archer, James X. Allen, Charles Hall, William Anderson of Montrose, George Bellamy, T. P. Green, Thomas Reese, Thomas Gittings, Thomas Darlow, Archibald Faulconer, Horace Church, George Robinson, Henry Tyler, William Hendrick, Otis C. Eaton, Jacob Reese, John Smith, John Gilbert, Cyril E. Brown, Jacob Adamson, Oden Jacobs, O. N. Dutton, John J. Billings, David Wildermuth, Charles Howery, John X. Davis, I. N. White, Benjaman Durfee, George Wilson, Samuel Ferris, John Matthews, John Vest, Frederick Berlin, Samuel Alcott, Andrew Sharer, Richard Lambert, John Lambert, Joseph Lambert, Daniel Lambert, Henry Pitt, Jr., Solomon Tripp, Henry Pitt, senior, William R. Durfee, Isaac Shupe, Heber Benedict, Richard Doty, Duty Griffith, James McKiernan, Benjamin Shogg, Henry Roberts, Ira Parish, James Newberry, James Brown, Henry M. Wilbraham, Peter Ray, Joseph Morrell, W. Manning, Robert Davis, J. E. Betts, George Kinghorn, Richard Hughes, John Thompson, Morgan Lewis, Samuel Perks, Charles Crowson, Thomas R. Allen, William Owen, Ben S. Jones, Frederick Hansen, William Cook, Henry Palmer, John Chadeyne, William H. Hart, Wentworth Vickery, N. H. Ditterline, William Nirk, Stephen Maloney, Elisha Palmer, David H. Smith, president; Phineas Cadwell, counselor; Jesse Broadbent, secretary.
No report has been made of the Priests', the Teachers', or the Deacons' Quorum.-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, pp. 476-478.

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J. W. Roberts, B. F. Leland, J. B. Lytle, Andrew Hall, Glaud Rodger, David Jones, George Hatt, Samuel Ackerly, C. F. Stiles, John Thomas, J. H. Lake, W. D. Morton, Jonathan Delap, W. Ostrander, G. R. Outhouse, Jans Johnson, James Burgess, J. C. Crabb, A. B. Alderman, D. L. F. Bronson, Isaac Bogue, Stephen Bull, and Joseph Billington.

The following from the pen of Elder T. W. Smith, from Brewton, Alabama, July 20, 1871, will be useful in showing the real situation in the South. He states:-

"As far as I have been in the South, which includes portions of western Florida and southern Alabama, I have been treated with much respect by the people. There is not much prejudice against a man from the North, and what there is, is owing to the course of many who have come, not to settle here and build up the country, but as transient office-seekers, who have come here with pretended love for and sympathy with the negro; but few of whom but would oppress and ill-treat him if they had him under circumstances where his ballot would be unavailing. The class called 'carpet-baggers,' the southern people dislike as a general thing; but I fully believe that a northern man who minds his own business, and does not seek to create strife among the two races, and who is willing to let the South manage its own affairs, is in no more danger of personal harm than in the North. Indeed, preaching as I do an unpopular doctrine as our faith everywhere is, I have been far more respected, and freer from insult and attempts at personal injury than I have been in many places in the North. In fact, I have never been insulted or threatened at any time here. When the people hear us define our position on the Brighamite question, and learn that Utah Mormonism is not the original 'Joseph Smith Mormonism,' but an antagonistic and degenerate faith, they seem willing to accord us a place in the body ecclesiastic.

"I have traveled twenty miles at a time on foot and alone, and through lonely woods, in unsettled localities; and at night have gone where opportunities for violence have been

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as good as could be asked; but as yet I have not been molested. I have neither seen nor heard of any Ku-Klux operations in southern Alabama or western Florida. There has been such an organization, but their object seems to have been fun, as much or more than any real love for blood or cruelty. The southern people are brave and impulsive, and no doubt while smarting under the sense of failure at secession, and loss of the slavery institution, their pride offended by the exaltation of their former slaves to a position of political equality, and in some cases political superiority; their love of home and its associations being challenged by invidious comparisons with more northernly institutions, manners, and habits, and by attempts of strangers to represent them in Congress, and in the State Legislature, I say no doubt while this condition of things exists, they are often led to deeds of violence in some parts. Knowing somewhat of the character of the people of the South,-their warm bloodedness and impulsiveness,-they manifest more forbearance and submission to law than I fear would be shown in many parts of the North if the people there were placed in precisely similar circumstances. If men trust to partisan accounts of opposing principles and associations, they very seldom will arrive at just conclusions. . . .

"As a religious body, we know by bitter experience the evil effects of persecution, and slander, and misrepresentation, and have seen how the prejudice, which results from these manifestations of a satanic spirit, vanishes when the truth is known. So it is in regard to southern and northern peculiarities.

"Since I wrote the last communication, I have been in a different country from the 'piney woods' of western Florida, and where the soil is different, and in this case I can say therefore, better. The lay of the land in Monroe and Butler counties is similar, as well as the character of the soil, to that of Pennsylvania, where my Dutch ancestors grew and thrived. Further north, the productiveness of the soil is clearly seen to be superior to that of these counties."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, pp. 525, 526.

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On the subject of emigration from Utah, Elder E. C. Brand wrote from Ogden, Utah, August 15, as follows:

"I sent off company of emigrants No. 3, on Saturday, August 12. They will arrive at Omaha on the 16th. They consist of twenty and one half only. We have not encouraged emigration this year. This, I expect, will be the last emigration this year. I preached here last night on endowments. Go tonight to Kaysville, and preach here again on Wednesday." The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 596.

August 16, Henry Goodcell, Jr., wrote from San Bernardino, California, the following encouraging information:

"Our meetings, however, are well attended, and there are prospects for a good work still to be done in San Bernardino. Even when we have no preaching, except by local elders or priests, our church is the church, and commonly surpasses all other churches in attendance, both of members and nonmembers. Our branch comprises so many of the most respectable citizens of the town that no one considers it a disgrace to be seen at our meeting." The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 595.

On the 28th of August, 1871, Apostle Zenos H. Gurley, Sen., of the Quorum of Twelve, died near Joy, Illinois. Of him the editor of the Herald wrote as follows:-

"It is with no ordinary feelings of sadness that we chronicle the departure from this life of Bro. Zenos H. Gurley, Sen., one of the Twelve. Bro. Gurley was born in the State of New York, May 29, 1801, and was consequently well past his seventieth birthday when the summons to depart reached him, which was on the 28th of August last. He heard the call of the angel of the latter-day work at Williamsburg, Canada, in the year 1838, and obeyed, receiving the rite of baptism at the hand of Elder James Blakeslee, in April of that year, under whose hands he was ordained to the office of elder in the following June. Bro. Gurley followed the fortunes of the church with unflagging faith until the death of the martyrs, Joseph and Hyrum, when like many others he wandered into the mists of the 'cloudy and dark day' that succeeded.

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He ultimately became convinced that there was need of and that there would be an uprising and a regathering; nor was he alone in this, for many others were of kindred sentiments. He was one among the elders with whom the work of reorganization began, and was called and ordained an apostle in April, 1853.

"To say that Bro. Zenos H. Gurley has been a faithful adherent to the principles of the latter-day work, is but to say what all who knew him can affirm. Sometime last winter Bro. Gurley was attending a meeting at the residence of Sr. Philo Howard, near Batavia, and while there preached his last discourse. He was taken sick before leaving there, and had failed to rally to his former good health, although he was thought to be slowly gaining when the 'reaper of death's harvest' struck him down. He was stopping at the house of Bro. Jesse L. Adams, not far from Joy station, in Mercer County, Illinois, when he died, having been with the Buffalo Prairie saints for some two or three weeks prior to that time.

"Perhaps no more energetic defender of the 'one faith' has lived in modern Israel than our departed brother has been. Stern in his integrity against evil-doing, his heart was always softened by the cry of the erring and repentant; and for them he was ready to sacrifice his all if thereby he could magnify the cause of the Redeemer."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 560.

The following items of interest appear in the editorial column of the Herald for September 1, 1871:-

"Bro. John H. Lake left Plano on the 17th of August, for Canada, in pursuance of appointment of April conference. We learn by letter from Sr. Louisa Jenkins that Bro. James Carrol has been preaching in Texas, near Greenville, Hunt County, and has baptized seven. . . . Bro. Scogin is preaching in Texas. Brethren Lanphear and T. W. Smith in Florida. Bro. Smith reports a most harmonious and excellent session at their late conference. The word is being preached in the Eastern States to good effect. Bro. James G. Scott writes from Leavenworth, Indiana, that the cause is progressing there, and the church receiving blessings.

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Bro. E. C. Brand has lately been preaching at the Iron Works, in Utah. Bro. Blair is still holding out the terms of life in the Western mission."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 530.

The Semiannual Conference convened on September 20, 1871, near Council Bluffs, Iowa. Joseph Smith presided, M. H. Forscutt acted as secretary, and D. H. Bays and J. R. Badham, clerks. The first day, the committee on hymn book and the committee of publication reported. After the usual reports the following appointments were made:-

"Resolved that the filling the mission to Great Britain be left with the First Presidency. C. G. Lanphear was released from the presidency of the Southern mission, and T. W. Smith sustained therein under the direction of the First Presidency. W. W. Blair was released from the presidency of the Pacific slope mission, and A. McCord, J. Chatburn, and S. Wood from Utah mission. All missions before given, from which those assigned are not released by this conference, are hereby sustained. Elders Z. S. Martin and J. J. Stafford were appointed to a mission to Ohio and Indiana. Nephi Caudle and John S. Weeks volunteered for a mission, and were assigned to William W. Blair for appointment. Elder E. C. Brand was released from the Utah mission, and Elder Charles Derry from the Western Iowa mission. . . . Resolved that all persons wishing to take missions beyond their respective districts, apply to the First Presidency or members of the Quorum of the Twelve. . . .Resolved that the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve provide a ministry and printed matter for the Utah mission."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, pp. 632, 633.

A resolution was passed, on the 22d, authorizing the appointment of a committee to collect matter for the Saints' Harp. The President appointed M. H. Forscutt, N. W. Smith, D. H. Smith, J. A. Scott, John T. Kinnaman, William Roberts, and Phineas Cadwell. The following was unanimously indorsed [endorsed]:-

"Resolved that this conference does hereby reaffirm the decree of the Grand Council held in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1835,

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Joseph Smith, Jr., presiding, which council asserted the exclusive jurisdiction of all branches, regarding the right to labor only by permission within their own recognized limits."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, pp. 633, 634.

The organization of the Third Quorum of Elders was authorized. The following resolutions received the approval of the conference:-

"Resolved that in the opinion of this conference the law of the Lord does not authorize the administration of the ordinance for the healing of the sick to be performed by any person in the church except those holding the Melchisedec priesthood, and that any officer teaching otherwise should be and is hereby reproved and instructed to teach only what the word of God commands according to the spirit and letter of the passage: 'Is any sick among you? Let him call for the elders of the church.' That when a person, already a member of the church, is baptized to satisfy the demands of his conscience, or because of informality in the first baptism, his membership and his priesthood, if he hold any priesthood, should be again confirmed upon him by the laying on of hands."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 634.

John Shippy, upon his confession and apology, was received, and his rebaptism and ordination by Elder John H. Lake were recognized, and his elder's license restored to him.

The following preamble and resolution of repeal were adopted:-

"On motion of Elders Forscutt and Blair, the following was offered and adopted: Whereas a diversity of opinion exists among the spiritual authorities of the church in relation to a resolution which passed at the Annual Conference of 1869, which reads: 'Resolved that it is not the true policy of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, that the Twelve shall control the funds of the church in the hands of the Bishop, but that the Bishop shall be amenable to the General Conference alone;' it is therefore resolved that this conference reconsider that resolution. On motion of Elders Forscutt and D. H. Bays the following was presented

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and carried: Resolved that the resolution of General Annual Conference of 1869, respecting the authority of the Twelve in relation to tithing, be and is hereby repealed."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 634.

The appendix to the Epistle of the Twelve was unanimously adopted. (See this book, pp. 300, 301.) John Eames and Robert S. Wood were ordained elders. The High Priests' Quorum reported that they had considered the case of Ebenezer Page, and declared him expelled from the church.

A committee, consisting of J. M. Putney, James Caffall, and Ralph Jenkins, was appointed to investigate any cases which might be presented. On the 24th, they reported, and their report was acted upon as follows:-

"Committee on cases for trial reported as follows: 'To the President and Brethren in Conference Assembled:-We your committee on cases that might be presented for us to adjudicate, beg leave to report that the Secretary of the church presented before us the evidence in the case of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints versus Granville Hedrick, and finding no evidence that Granville Hedrick ever united with said church, as a member, we declare he is not a member thereof. J. M. Putney, chairman.' On motion, it was resolved that we receive and indorse [endorse] the report of the committee in the case of Granville Hedrick, and that the committee be discharged."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 636.

The following officers were sustained: "Joseph Smith, as President of the Church and editor of Herald and Zion's Hope. William Marks, as counselor to the President. Jason W. Briggs, as president, William W. Blair, Samuel Powers, E. C. Briggs, and Josiah Ells as members of the Quorum of the Twelve. Reuben Newkirk's name was presented as a member of the quorum, but failed to receive support. Isaac Sheen, as president of the High Priests' Quorum, Joseph Parsons as his counselor. A. M. Wilsey, as president of the Seventy's Quorum. E. Banta, as president of the First Elders' Quorum, and J. S. Patterson as his counselor. D. H. Smith, as president of the Second Elders'

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Quorum, and P. Cadwell as his counselor. Israel L. Rogers, as presiding Bishop, and William Aldrich, on condition of his being ordained to that office, as his counselor. Mark H. Forscutt, as General Church Secretary, and assistant editor of the Herald and Zion's Hope. Isaac Sheen as General Church Recorder."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 636.

September 27, the First United Order of Enoch issued a notice, setting forth the business transacted at a meeting held during the conference. 2

The following are items of news, given by the editor of Herald, on October 1, 1871:-

"We learn from proper sources in Michigan, that Bro. C. B. Thomas and Sherman I. Smith are preaching at Trowbridge, south of Allegan, to large and attentive congregations; Brn. Asa S. Cochran and C. B. Thomas at Dorr, where there is a good interest manifested; Bro. J. E. Hopper is associated with Brn. Thomas and Smith at Trowbridge. Bro. R. G. Eccles has had a debate with Mr. W. F. Jamieson, spiritualist, lately. Bro. M. E. Campbell has been holding meetings among the Indians. Saints at Allendale suffering slight persecution, but hopes are that it will be for their good. Lectures on the principles of the gospel were commenced on the 16th, at Black's schoolhouse,

2 According to notification, the annual election for board of directors of the First United Order of Enoch was held at Council Bluffs, Iowa, September 23, 1871. The following are the proceedings at, and result of, said election: The stockholders convened at one p. m., upon the conference grounds. . . . Proceeding to vote by ballot in person or by proxy, the following result was obtained: Alexander McCord 372, D. M. Gamet 362, Calvin Beebe 359, Phineas Cadwell 342, I. L. Rogers 322, Elijah Banta 307, David Dancer 282, William Hopkins 140, T. J. Andrews 60, Roland Cobb 30, scattering 33. The first seven named were declared elected, and the meeting adjourned with benediction by Pres. J. Smith.
At a subsequent meeting of the board of directors the former officers were reëlected, namely, Elijah Banta president, David Dancer vice president, I. L. Rogers treasurer, Henry A. Stebbins secretary. The board and its officers are now proceeding to perfect the organization, and to take such further measures as the law requires for "Its permanent establishment as a corporate body, and for its effective working in due time to the benefit (according to its constitution) of the skilled, the worthy, and the industrious."
PLANO, Illinois, September 27, 1871.
-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 637.

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in Harrison County, Missouri. Saints of the Decatur district had an excellent conference at Pleasanton, Iowa, in September past. . . . Bro. David H. Smith has been preaching at St. Louis, Missouri, Alexander H. Smith at Princeville, Illinois."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, pp. 593, 594.

The Pacific slope semiannual conference was held in San Francisco, California, October 7, 1871; Elders D. S. Mills and Hervey Green presiding, Peter Canavan clerk. The business done was of a local character, but reports indicated progress.

In the Herald for November 15, Elder A. H. Smith wrote from Nauvoo, Illinois, as follows:-

"I am still laboring as presiding elder of the String Prairie and Nauvoo district; preaching every Sunday somewhere, and often during the week, as my circumstances will permit. I shall try not to be idle, if I do not go to Utah. Next Sunday I go to Rock Creek, Illinois; the next to Farmington, Iowa; the next to Croton, Iowa; the next to Keokuk, and so on if no providence intervenes to prevent. . . . I witnessed the baptism of five last Sunday, Bro. Joseph R. Lambert officiating. Your old acquaintance, W. A. Head, being one of the number."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 692.

The following items were published November 1, 1871:-

"News from various parts of the country are very cheering, and the elders generally seem alive to their duties. President J. Smith returned home on the 20th ult.; he has been preaching in western Iowa, where quite a fine field is opened for the spread of truth. Elder I. Sheen baptized Professor Isaac Richardson at Plano, on the 1st of October. The Professor was formerly one of the faculty of Pulaski Academy, New York, has been Principal of the business department of a commercial college in the same state, and purposes to make himself useful in the cause. Beside other branches he is a Professor of Phonography. Elders W. W. Blair and E. Banta are about to exert themselves in Sandwich, where the German church has been rented for one year. Elder J. Ells is busy doing the Master's work in the

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East, and feels very much encouraged"-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, pp. 660, 661.

November 14, Elder Z. H. Gurley, Jr., wrote as follows:

"Since my last, I have baptized eleven persons in Fayette township, Iowa. Bro. Banta spoke there Sunday last, the feeling there is good in our behalf. Persecution reigns in Allendale and vicinity. Hope to visit there soon."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 18, p. 725.

December 7, Elder Josiah Ells wrote from Boston, concerning some parties who had returned from Palestine:-

"'I had the privilege of baptizing three at Indian River, Maine, on Sunday, the third of December. Others would have been but for their too late arrival at the place of meeting.' These were a part of the colony that G. J. Adams took to Jaffa, Palestine, and who returned from there-The Saints' Herald, vol. 19, p. 17.

Again he wrote, on December 15, as follows:-

"Two of the brethren I baptized belonged to the Jaffa colony which went to Palestine; one of them I ordained a priest, the other will be ordained also. . . . The brethren will continue their labor, and keep the fire burning, and I shall be most happy to learn they have reaped all that is sown, and more too. I believe I am justified in saying that many in that region will obey the gospel."-The Saints' Herald, vol. 19, p. 55.

The year 1871 was an eventful year, not only in church work, but in the phenomena exhibited in the physical universe. The Chicago Tribune, of November 15, contained an interesting and startling summary of disasters in the world during the year. 3

The year 1871 will hardly be considered in history a year of grace. In point of fatality to human life, and destruction to material values by extraordinary natural causes, no year in the history of the world can equal it. Overwhelmed as we are by our own disaster, we have given little attention to what has been transpiring abroad, and have almost come to consider ourselves the only sufferers. The retrospect, however, is a terrible one. War, famine, pestilence, fire, wind and water, and ice, have been let loose and done their worst, and with such appalling results, and with such remarkable phenomena accompanying them, that it is not to be wondered at, men have sometimes thought the end of the world had come. We have seen our own fair city laid in ashes, throughout

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For three years or more we have at intervals appealed to members of the Church of Christ (usually called Hedrickites) for a sketch of the history of their organization; but so far we have received nothing from them. We therefore present what we have. The Saints'

almost its entire business limits, and seventy thousand people left homeless. On that same night, the conflagration swept through northern Wisconsin and Michigan, sweeping village after village with horrible loss of life, and ruining thousands of acres of timber, the cutting and milling of which formed the main industry of that region. Illinois, Minnesota, Indiana, New York, Pennsylvania, Kansas, Missouri, and California, the Alleghenies, the Sierras, and the Rocky Mountains have been ravaged by fire, destroying immense amounts of property and entailing widespread suffering. Chicago is not the only city which has suffered. Peshtigo, Manistee, Cacheville and Vallejo, California; Urbana, Darmstadt, and Geneva, under the Alps, have all been visited by terrible fires; and the torch of the incendiary has been applied successively to Louisville, St. Louis, Toronto, Montreal, and Syracuse.
The pestilence has walked at noonday. The cholera has steadily traveled from Asia westward through Europe, and our dispatches of yesterday announced its arrival at New York quarantine. One of the most appalling plagues of modern times, arising from yellow fever, has swept over portions of South America, and in Buenos Ayres [Aires] alone, twenty-eight thousand bodies were buried in one cemetery. Persia has been almost depopulated by the plague, which has been rendered all the more terrible by the added horrors of famine; and now, in our own country, smallpox has appeared as an epidemic in nearly every large city.
Storms, in their various manifestations, have never been so destructive before. In one night, a river in India suddenly rises, swollen by a storm, and sweeps away an entire city, destroying three thousand houses, and utterly prostrating the crops. The little French seaport town of Pornic has been almost utterly destroyed by a tidal wave. The icebergs of the Arctic have caught and imprisoned within their impassable walls thirty-three whalers, inflicting a loss of a million and a half of dollars upon the city of New Bedford, and seriously crippling an important branch of industry. St. Thomas has been devastated by a hurricane which left six thousand people homeless and strewed its coasts with wrecks. A typhoon, of terrible power, has swept along the Chinese coast, destroying everything in its course,-towns, shipping, and life. A hurricane at Halifax has inflicted a severe blow upon English shipping. The storms on the English coast have never been so severe before, nor so fruitful in maritime disasters. A tidal wave at Galveston swept off all the shipping in port. A tornado has swept through Canada, doing serious damage in Toronto, Montreal, and Quebec. The island of Formosa has been nearly destroyed by an earthquake.
Add to these the unusual crop of murders and suicides in this country, the alarming increase of railroad and steamboat disasters, the monstrous villainies which have been brought to light in public offices and private corporations, the Franco-German war with its attendant horrors, and the statement of the astronomers that there has been an explosion in the sun, and that two or three comets are just now in danger of losing their tails by their proximity to that orb,-and we may be justified in assuming that the year 1871 will be known in future calendars as the Black Year.

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Herald for September 15, 1864, contains an article from the pen of Elder William W. Blair concerning Mr. Granville Hedrick and his movements, from which we quote. We would prefer to let these people speak for themselves for we believe this is a prerogative attaching to all men; but those who have known President W. W. Blair will not question his veracity. He states:-

"I have had more acquaintance with Mr. Granville Hedrick than with any other person of their church. As to his character as a citizen, I know but little or nothing about it; but in regard to his career in religious matters, I do know some things, as told me by himself, and as seen, read, and heard of him, for myself since June, 1857, up to the present time. Mr. Hedrick told me that he joined the church, near where he now lives, not long before Joseph's death. He was brought into the church (I think he said) under the labors of Hervey Green. He soon apostatized entirely from the faith, after which he went to a place called "New Diggings," in the lead mines near Galena, where some time after Joseph's death he heard William O. Clark and others, and joined the church under their preaching. After this he moved back into Woodford County, and after a season became an adherent of Gladden Bishop. After leaving Bishop, or just before (I am not positive which), he became engaged to some extent with the spirit rappings. After this he wrote a little book against polygamy, and in advocacy of the priesthood of the church assembling and voting to themselves a prophet, seer, revelator, and president of the church and priesthood. This much I write from memory of things he told me.

"In 1857, by invitation I attended a conference held by him and others at the house of Mr. Judy, near Mackinaw, Illinois. Here I plainly saw that Mr. Hedrick was the head and front of their little association, his suggestions and counselings shaped the whole course and conduct of the conference, and consequently I had but little confidence in either him or those composing the conference; and while I readily accorded to the most of them honesty of purpose in what they were trying to do, I saw to my full satisfaction that

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the blind were leading the blind, and from that time till now, I have believed that Mr. Hedrick was aspiring to the leadership of the church.

"In 1858 [according to conference minutes this should be 1857.-H. C. S.], Mr. Hedrick and Mr. Owens went to a conference of the Reorganized Church at Zarahemla, Wisconsin. Mr. Hedrick rode with me in my buggy and we talked very much on church matters, and he gave me to understand that he was quite satisfied that the position which the Reorganized Church occupied was correct, and he seemed ready to unite with us, but wanted his brethren and sisters to unite when he did. He therefore gave me a pressing invitation to visit him and them at an early day, and lay our views fully before them. He said that he thought that some of our elders could do it better and more successfully than himself.

"I conferred with Elders J. W. Briggs and Z. H. Gurley relative to the matter, and by their request I went down in company with Elder E. C. Briggs, to the Hedrick conference at Bloomington. . . . At Bloomington we were very kindly entertained by Mr. A. C. Haldeman, whom I then could fellowship as a brother. The conference (composed of perhaps twenty persons) appointed Mr. Hedrick their president. He preached, and such a sermon (if a sermon you could call it) I pray God I may never hear again from the lips of a professed saint. It consisted mainly in a tirade of abuse directed against the martyred prophet. Stories were told about him, the telling of which by his vilest enemies would have been to their everlasting shame. . . . [Elder E. C. Briggs confirms the statements of Elder Blair as given above.-H. C. S.]

"Mr. Hedrick came to another conference of the Reorganized Church, held near Amboy. It was understood that Mr. Z. Brooks (who was then engaged in building up a faction) desired to speak to the people and present his peculiar views, and also that Mr. Hedrick would like to present his views, and also a Mr. Israel Huffhaker, a Rigdonite, wanted to present to the people the peculiar tenets of Rigdonism. It was, therefore, agreed that the first evening should be devoted to that purpose. Mr. Brooks

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left very unceremoniously, stating afterwards (as I heard) that we would not permit him to speak. In the evening Messrs. Hedrick and Huffhaker occupied what time they chose, and Bro. J. W. Briggs replied to them briefly. Since this time I have had but little personal acquaintance with Mr. Hedrick or his followers. Suffice it to say, that when they have come to our conferences, we have endeavored to treat them courteously, and have always given them a chance to speak in our meetings. When Bro. Briggs and myself went to the Bloomington conference no such chance was offered except in their prayer meetings, where the discussion of those points which we were invited to come and present, would not have been proper."

This is the Granville Hedrick of whom mention is made in the General Conferences of 1871. In company with Jedediah Owen he met with the Reorganization at the Semiannual Conference held at Zarahemla, Wisconsin, October 6, 1857, and they were given "the right hand of fellowship" by the conference. Elder Hedrick was at that conference appointed with Elder J. W. Briggs to write "a pamphlet setting forth the true position of our doctrine." (See pages 233 and 234 of this volume.)

Whether Elders Briggs and Hedrick disagreed at that time or not we do not know, but we have no account of the pamphlet having been written, and at the Annual Conference, April, 1858, held at the same place, the following resolution was adopted:-

"Resolved that Jason W. Briggs be and is truly exonerated from acting in connection with Granville Hedrick, of Bloomington, Illinois, in writing out matter for publication as directed by the previous fall conference."

The conference of October, 1857, also provided for a conference to be held at Crow Creek, Woodford County, Illinois, the home of Elders Hedrick and Owen, on Christmas day, 1857. The church records show no minutes of this conference, and we have seen no account of this conference having taken place unless it is the one mentioned by Elder Blair. These circumstances lead us to suppose that these parties (Hedrick and Owen) became disaffected soon after the Semiannual

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Conference of 1857, and hence the pamphlet was not written nor the conference held, under the auspices of the Reorganization.

We know but little of the history of Mr. Hedrick from this time until 1864, when he became prominent, claiming to be the successor of Joseph Smith, and became the head of an organization called The Church of Christ. A monthly periodical called the Truth Teller was published in advocacy of his claims. The first issue bore date of July, 1864. The place of publication or the name of the editor was not given, but Bloomington, Illinois, was the probable place, and Adna C. Haldeman was supposed to be the editor, as instruction was given to address correspondence and remittances to Mr. Haldeman, at Bloomington. The first issue of the paper contained two productions claiming to be revelations from God given through Granville Hedrick. The first revelation under date of August 16, 1863, claims to have been given in conference in "Livingston County, Illinois, in the presence of fifteen members, including the quorum of four apostles." These apostles bear witness in the following certificate: "And we, as apostles of the church, bear witness of the truth of this revelation as being given by the power of the Holy Spirit, whereunto we set our names. John E. Page, David Judy, Adna C. Haldeman, Jedediah Owen."

The acceptance of this revelation placed its adherents in a peculiar position towards the work of the church under the administration of Joseph Smith, the Seer, and also towards others who believed in the latter-day message. That this peculiar condition may be seen by the reader and his own deductions made, we quote the material part of the revelation:-

"I have promised in the covenants which I made unto the church, that they might be a blessed people upon the land of promise, and covenant which I made with the house of Joseph; that inasmuch as they would keep their covenant with the Lord, according to the fullness of the everlasting gospel, they should enjoy the blessings and promises that the Lord has made with the house of Joseph. Therefore, inasmuch as the church to whom these covenants and

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promises were made, in these last days have rendered them-selves by transgression unworthy to enjoy those blessings, they have been scattered and driven from off the land which I the Lord consecrated unto my church and people in the State of Missouri, for a beginning of the gathering of my people, from which place they were driven out. Now hear and know, my friends, for I speak unto you as such, who have sought to know counsel and to have understanding of these things at my hand, I say unto you that the driving out of the church from their consecrated lands which I promised unto them for an inheritance, if they would keep my covenants and commandments according to the fullness of the everlasting gospel, which I gave unto them through that Seer whom I blessed with power from on high to bring forth and establish my church among the Gentiles. And because of discord and contention among them their minds became darkened, consequently they treated lightly the things that were given for their salvation and deliverance of the burning day; and in consequence of their not hearkening unto these things which I the Lord prepared for them, they were not acceptable before me. Therefore the enemy had power over them to cause them to receive false teachings and doctrines which were not of me, and I suffered them because of their own iniquity to be deceived, because they would not walk in the light that I had revealed unto them through my servant whom I had appointed to give revelations and commandments unto my people, and because of their difficulties which fell upon them. After they were driven out many began to grow doubtful and fearful, consequently great contentions arose among them, and because of these iniquities I the Lord designed and purposed to chastise them for their iniquities, which things I revealed unto my servant Joseph, concerning the awful chastisements and calamities that should fall upon them for their disobedience which would subject them to the powers of darkness for a season and time of the chastening hand of the Lord, until the day and time when the redemption of my people shall come, which thing I said unto my servant Joseph should come by power; for I said unto him I would

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raise up a man who should lead my people by power, as I led Israel in the day of her deliverance.

"Therefore, I say unto you, that Joseph foreseeing that another should arise and deliver Zion by power, which caused my servant Joseph to fear and quake exceedingly lest he should lose the honor and glory of delivering my people, which caused him much trouble in thought and mind, in which he did not humble himself sufficiently before the Lord, wherein Satan had power to deceive him and lead him astray in coveting and desiring that which was not appointed unto him. Therefore I withheld my Spirit from him. Satan having power, tempted him to practice a fraud by assuming that he was the servant spoken of in the parable of the vineyard which was given concerning that servant of the Lord who should deliver Israel or the Lord's people, wherein he suffered himself to be called Baurakale, by a name that the Lord gave not. Thus I say unto you, my friends, I the Lord withheld my counsel from the church through Joseph Smith, because of their iniquities, and thus the church was left without a seer from that day, because of the blindness of his mind and the iniquities of my people. I suffered them to walk in the blindness of their own hearts until the time should be fulfilled sufficiently for their chastisement, that I might redeem my people by power, and raise up a righteous multitude unto me, saith the Lord. Now I say unto you, my friends, prepare your hearts and minds to live humble and walk holy before me in keeping all my commandments, and counsels unto you, which are given for your salvation and preservation in the burning day of the Lord. Inasmuch as you do these things, you are my covenant people, and I the Lord your God will give unto you counsel and instruction from time to time that you may be led by the hand of your Father in heaven-and if you do these things you shall escape all the power and cunning of the wicked one."

The second revelation, bearing date of April 24, 1864, indorsed [endorsed] Jackson County, Missouri, as the place of gathering, and gave instruction for the people to gather there in the year 1867, and to "take counsel together that you may escape

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the awful calamity of war and famine which shall fall upon this people of the Northern States, beginning in the year 1871, at which time the sword shall fall heavily upon the people, and famine shall quickly follow, and thus shall the sword continue to be drawn, and by bloodshed shall this nation war and contend until they are overthrown and their liberties taken away from them, which shall terminate in the year 1878, and thus anarchy and destruction shall reign throughout the dominions of the wicked, while you, the people of my church, shall be assembled and grow up into a peaceable multitude where I, the Lord your God, will raise up a strong and mighty people, whose delight will not be to shed blood, but will trust in God and live in peace-for I, the Lord God, will protect them. Wherefore, all ye people who have covenanted with the Lord your God to keep all his commandments according to the fullness of the everlasting gospel, I say unto you, lay aside all your contentions and false doctrines and teachings, and turn to the pure principles as they are given in the everlasting gospel. If you do these things you shall be a blessed people."

That it was claimed that Granville Hedrick occupied the position in the church formerly occupied by Joseph Smith, is evident from the following article from the pen of Adna C. Haldeman in the Truth Teller for August, 1864: "The first number of the Truth Teller contains two important revelations. If you have access to them you can readily see the cause of the present divided and distracted condition of the church; you will also see what is the duty of every one of its members to bring about a union. The awful scourge that awaits this nation-how, when, and where you can flee to escape it, is plainly shown. Remember this, that these revelations were given through him whom the church in General Conference selected by vote, and was ordained president, prophet, seer, and revelator of the church by members of the quorum of the twelve. About seventeen persons were present on these ever memorable occasions when the God of Israel, in answer to fasting and prayer, filled the house where they were assembled with his Spirit,

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which made every soul present rejoice in the God of their salvation. Brethren, it never will be forgotten by those who were thus favored with the privilege of being present when God again spoke to his church through the means he had ordained."

Elder Haldeman, in the same article, gives names of those present at the giving of these revelations, and the period of time that each had been a member of the church. "I will give the names and post office address, as near as I can recollect, of the brethren and sisters present when each revelation was received. There were some present August 16, 1863, that were not April 24, 1864. The number in all was about seventeen-all of this State, as follows: Zebulon Adams, Atlanta, Logan County, has been a high priest in the church for about thirty years; Dennis Burns, Clinton, DeWitt County, came into the church over thirty years ago; John E. Page, DeKalb, DeKalb County, has been one of the quorum of the twelve for about twenty-five years; David Judy, Mackinaw town, Tazewell County, and Jedediah Owen, Lacon, Marshall County, have been elders in the church for about thirty years, and both of them were driven from Missouri, at the time of the expulsion of the saints from that State. (They are going back again.) C. E. Reynolds, New Rutland, LaSalle County, came into the church in the city of New York about twenty-eight years ago; Granville Hedrick, Washburn, Woodford County, has been an elder in the church for about twenty-two or twenty-four years; G. W. Gifford, Oak Dale, Livingston County, was baptized about three years ago; James Bradley and J. W. Frazy, Oak Dale, Livingston County, became members of the church about four years since. William Eaton and wife, Adaline, Long Point, Livingston County-Brother Eaton has been a member for about twenty years; Sister Eaton was baptized about seven years ago. J. H. Hedrick and his wife Ann, Washburn, Woodford County, came into the church about eight years ago; Ann M. Hess, Decatur, Macon County, has been for over twenty years a member of the church; Nancy Bradley, Oak Dale, Livingston County, whom God has

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honored to be the mother of seven members of his kingdom, has been a member herself for about twenty-seven years."

It would seem from these declarations that this organization claimed to be the original church, reorganized or reformed. Lately we have heard from some of its leading representatives that they claimed to be a branch of the church, and was in fact a continuation of the Crow Creek branch organized a few years prior to the death of Joseph Smith, in Woodford County, Illinois. They accepted the revelations which were adopted by the General Assembly held at Kirtland, Ohio, August 17, 1835, and published in the 1835 edition of the Book of Doctrine and Covenants; but rejected revelations of a later date. They rejected, as false doctrines, baptism for the dead, plurality of gods, tithing, and polygamy.

In accordance with the communication before mentioned, this body of worshipers removed to Independence, Missouri, where they have maintained an organization ever since. The organization, however, has undergone some changes. It has no one now recognized as prophet, seer, and revelator, nor have they apostles. When they removed to Independence, Missouri, they bought up, as opportunity offered, some of the lots belonging to the block originally dedicated for the building of the Temple, including the site for the Temple. Some conditions not necessary to fully mention here, prompted the Reorganization in 1893 to enter suit in the Circuit Court of the United States for Western District of Missouri, for possession of the Temple Lot. The decision was rendered by Judge John F. Philips in favor of the Reorganization in the following: "Decree will go in favor of Complainant, establishing the trust in its favor against Respondents, removing the cloud from the title, enjoining Respondents from asserting title to the property, and awarding the possession to the Complainant."

The Church of Christ appealed, and the case was heard by the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. The Court of Appeals did not disturb the decree of Judge Philips so far as title was concerned, but sustained one of the contentions of the Church of Christ, that of "Laches,"

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and it was decreed that the church could not legally take possession because of failure to enter suit in time. Thus the case now stands with equitable title in the Reorganization, and the "Church of Christ" in possession.

This organization is, and ever has been, weak in numerical strength, numbering at the present writing less than two hundred communicants. The first volume of the Truth Teller, ending with June, 1865, was published in the place of its first issue. The January number, 1865, was the first to contain the name of Granville Hedrick as editor. Its publication was renewed at Independence, Missouri, in June, 1868, but it did not long survive. During the last few years they have issued a small paper called the Searchlight. This was discontinued with the April number, 1900, and in May they published the first number of the Evening and Morning Star, claiming it was the resuscitation of the paper of that name published in Independence in an early time, and discontinued in 1833.

Of late there have been some conferences through committees, between the Reorganization and Church of Christ, known as the Hedrickites, accounts of which will appear in their time in history.

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