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THE year 1841 opened with fair prospects at home and abroad. Nauvoo had just been favored with a charter granting extraordinary privileges. Everywhere throughout the States and Canada the ministry were finding willing ears to hear the message, and multitudes were becoming obedient. Nauvoo was growing as if by magic, numbering already some three thousand inhabitants. England, Wales, and Scotland had heard the sound and were responding with unexampled enthusiasm and zeal; especially was this true of England.

Under these circumstances, having just emerged from the dark cloud of Missouri's oppression, it was but natural that they should feel glad, and thankfully rejoice. Yes, it may be that some of them had then to an extent become arrogant, proud, and boastful, neglecting to be as humble and devoted as they were under more adverse circumstances; and it may be, too, that this proud spirit increased as their prosperity increased. If so, it was but the outcropping of nature and what might reasonably be expected of any community similarly situated; but that they will compare favorably with any other people in similar conditions of which history speaks, must be conceded. This will be apparent to a close and fair investigator.

On January 15, 1841, the First Presidency made a general

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proclamation to the saints. In this proclamation is found the avowed purpose of the church upon some points of special interest, among them the object in obtaining the charters above-mentioned. 1

1 We would likewise make mention of the legislature of this State, who, without respect of parties, without reluctance, freely, openly boldly, and nobly have come forth to our assistance, owned us as citizens and friends, and took us by the hand and extended to us all the blessings of civil, political, and religious liberty, by granting us, under date of December 16, 1840, one of the most liberal charters, with the most plenary powers, ever conferred by a legislative assembly on free citizens for the "City of Nauvoo," the "Nauvoo Legion," and the "University of the City of Nauvoo." The first of these charters (that for the "City of Nauvoo") secures to us in all time to come, irrevocably, all those great blessings of civil liberty which of right appertain to all the free citizens of a great civilized republic-'tis all we ever claimed. What a contrast does the proceedings of the legislature of this State present when compared with those of Missouri, whose bigotry, jealousy, and superstition prevailed to such an extent as to deny us our liberty and our sacred rights. Illinois has set a glorious example to the whole United States and to the world at large, and has nobly carried out the principles of her Constitution and the Constitution of these United States, and while she requires of us implicit obedience to the laws, (which we hope ever to see observed,) she affords us the protection of law-the security of life, liberty, and the peaceable pursuit of happiness,
The name of our city (Nauvoo) is of Hebrew origin, and signifies a beautiful situation or place, carrying with it also the idea of rest; and is truly descriptive of this most delightful situation. It is situated on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, at the head of the Des Moines Rapids, in Hancock County; bounded on the east by an extensive prairie of surpassing beauty, and on the north, west, and south, by the Mississippi. This place has been objected to by some on account of the sickness which has prevailed in the summer months, but it is the opinion of Dr. Bennett, a physician of great experience and medical knowledge, that Hancock County and all the eastern and southern portions of the City of Nauvoo are as healthy as any other portions of the western country (or the world, to acclimated citizens), whilst the northwestern portion of the city has experienced much affliction from ague and fever, which however, he thinks can easily be remedied by draining the sloughs on the adjacent islands in the Mississippi.
The population of our city is increasing with unparalleled rapidity, numbering more than three thousand inhabitants. Every facility is afforded in the city and adjacent country, in Hancock County, for the successful prosecution of the mechanical arts and the pleasing pursuits of agriculture. The waters of the Mississippi can be successfully used for manufacturing purposes to an almost unlimited extent.
Having been instrumental in the hands of our heavenly Father in laying a foundation for the gathering of Zion, we would say, Let all those who appreciate the blessings of the gospel and realize the importance of obeying the commandments of heaven, who have been blessed of heaven with the possession of this world's goods, first prepare for the general gathering. Let them dispose of their effects as fast as circumstances will possibly admit, without making too great sacrifices, and remove to our city and county-establish and build up manufactories in the city, purchase and cultivate farms in the county. This will secure our permanent

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inheritance, and prepare the way for the gathering of the poor. This is agreeable to the order of heaven, and the only principle on which the gathering can be effected. Let the rich, then, and all who can assist in establishing this place, make every preparation to come on without delay, and strengthen our hands, and assist in promoting the happiness of the saints. This cannot be too forcibly impressed on the minds of all; and the elders are hereby instructed to proclaim this word in all places where the saints reside, in their public administrations, for this is according to the instructions we have received from the Lord.
The temple of the Lord is in progress of erection here, where the saints will come to worship the God of their fathers, according to the order of his house and the powers of the holy priesthood, and will be so constructed as to enable all the functions of the priesthood to be duly exercised, and where instructions from the Most High will be received, and from this place go forth to distant lands.
Let us then concentrate all our powers under the provisions of our magna charta granted by the Illinois legislature, at the "City of Nauvoo," and surrounding country, and strive to emulate the actions of the ancient covenant fathers and patriarchs, in those things, which are of such vast importance to this and every succeeding generation.
The "Nauvoo Legion" embraces all our military power, and will enable us to perform our military duty by ourselves, and thus afford us the power and privilege of avoiding one of the most fruitful sources of strife, oppression, and collision with the world. It will enable us to show our attachment to the State and nation as a people, whenever the public service requires our aid, thus proving ourselves obedient to the paramount laws of the land, and ready at all times to sustain and execute them.
The "University of the City of Nauvoo" will enable us to teach our children wisdom-to instruct them in all knowledge and learning, in the arts, sciences, and learned professions. We hope to make this institution one of the great lights of the world, and by and through it to diffuse that kind of knowledge which will be of practical utility and for the public good, and also for private and individual happiness. The regents of the university will take the general supervision of all matters appertaining to education, from common schools up to the highest branches of a most liberal collegiate course. They will establish a regular system of education, and hand over the pupil from teacher to professor, until the regular gradation is consummated and the education finished. This corporation contains all the powers and prerogatives of any other college or university in this State. The charters for the university and legion are addenda to the city charter, making the whole perfect and complete. . . .
Dr. Isaac Galland, also, who is one of our benefactors, having under his control a large quantity of land in the immediate vicinity of our city, and a considerable portion of the city plot, opened both his heart and his hands, and "when we were strangers took us in," and bade us welcome to share with him in his abundance; leaving his dwelling house, the most splendid edifice in the vicinity for our accommodation, and betook himself to a small, uncomfortable dwelling. He sold us his large estates on very reasonable terms and on long credit, so that we might have an opportunity of paying for them without being distressed, and has since taken our lands in Missouri in payment for the whole amount, and has given us a clear and indisputable title for the same. And in addition to the first purchase, we have exchanged lands with him in Missouri to the amount of eighty thousand dollars. He is the honored instrument the Lord used to prepare a home for us, when we were driven from our inheritances, having given him control of vast

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bodies of land and prepared his heart to make the use of it the Lord intended he should. Being a man of extensive information, great talents, and high literary fame, he devoted all his powers and influence to give us a character. . . .
From the kind, uniform, and consistent course pursued by the citizens of Illinois and the great success which has attended us while here, the natural advantages of this place for every purpose we require, and the necessity of the gathering of the saints of the Most High, we would say, Let the brethren who love the prosperity of Zion, who are anxious that her stakes should be strengthened, and her cords lengthened, and who prefer her prosperity to their chief joy, come, and cast in their lots with us, and cheerfully engage in a work so glorious and sublime, and say with Nehemiah, "We his servants will arise and build."
It probably would hardly be necessary to enforce this important subject on the attention of the saints, as its necessity is obvious and is a subject of paramount importance; but as watchmen to the house of Israel, as shepherds over the flock which is now scattered over a vast extent of country, and the anxiety we feel for their prosperity and everlasting welfare, and for the carrying out the great and glorious purposes of our God, to which we have been called, we feel to urge its necessity and say, Let the saints come here-This is the word of the Lord, and in accordance with the great work of the last days.
It is true the idea of a general gathering has heretofore been associated with most cruel and oppressing scenes, owing to our unrelenting persecutions at the hands of wicked and unjust men; but we hope that those days of darkness and gloom have gone by, and from the liberal policy of our State government we may expect a scene of peace and prosperity we have never before witnessed since the rise of our church, and the happiness and prosperity which now await us, is, in all human probability incalculably great. By a concentration of action and a unity of effort we can only accomplish the great work of the last days, which we could not do in our remote and scattered condition, while our interests both spiritual and temporal will be greatly enhanced, and the blessings of heaven must flow unto us in an uninterrupted stream; of this we think there can be no question. The great profusion of temporal and spiritual blessings, which always flow from faithfulness and concerted effort never attend individual exertion or enterprise. The history of all past ages abundantly attests this fact. . . .
We would wish the saints to understand that when they come here they must not expect to find perfection, or that all will be harmony peace, and love; if they indulge these ideas they will undoubtedly be deceived, for here there are persons, not only from different States, but from different nations, who, although they feel a great attachment to the cause of truth, have their prejudices of education, and consequently it requires some time before these things can be overcome. Again, there are many that creep in unawares and endeavor to sow discord, strife and animosity in our midst, and by so doing bring evil upon the saints These things we have to bear with and these things will prevail either to a greater or lesser extent until "the floor be thoroughly purged" and "the chaff be burnt up." Therefore let those who come up to this place be determined to keep the commandments of God, and not be discouraged by those things we have enumerated, and then they will be prospered, the intelligence of heaven will be communicated to them, and they will eventually see eye to eye and rejoice in the full fruition of that glory which is reserved for the righteous.
In order to erect the temple of the Lord great exertions will be required on the part of the saints, so that they may build a house which shall be accepted of by the Almighty, and in which his power and glory shall be

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January 19, 1841, a lengthy revelation containing much valuable information was received. 2

manifested. Therefore let those who can, freely make a sacrifice of their time, their talents, and their property, for the prosperity of the kingdom and for the love they have to the cause of truth, bid adieu to their homes and pleasant places of abode, and unite with us in the great work of the last days, and share in the tribulation, that they may ultimately share in the glory and triumph.
We wish it likewise to be distinctly understood that we claim no privilege but what we feel cheerfully disposed to share with our fellow citizens of every denomination and every sentiment of religion; and therefore say, that so far from being restricted to our own faith, let all those who desire to locate themselves in this place or the vicinity, come, and we will hail them as citizens and friends, and shall feel it not only a duty, but a privilege, to reciprocate the kindness we have received from the benevolent and kind-hearted citizens of the State of Illinois.
Presidents of the Church.
NAUVOO, January 15, 1841.
-Times and Seasons, vol. 2, pp. 273-277.
2 1. Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph Smith, I am well pleased with your offering and acknowledgments, which you have made, for unto this end have I raised you up, that I might shew forth my wisdom through the weak things of the earth. Your prayers are acceptable before me, and in answer to them I say unto you that you are now called immediately to make a solemn proclamation of my gospel, and of this stake which I have planted to be a corner stone of Zion which shall be polished with that refinement which is after the similitude of a palace. This proclamation shall be made to all the kings of the world, to the four corners thereof-to the honorable President elect, and the high-minded governors of the nation in which you live, and to all the nations of the earth, scattered abroad. Let it be written in the spirit of meekness, and by the power of the Holy Ghost, which shall be in you at the time of the writing of the same; for it shall be given you by the Holy Ghost to know my will concerning those kings and authorities, even what shall befall them in a time to come. For, behold, I am about to call upon them to give heed to the light and glory of Zion, for the set time has come to favor her.
2. Call ye, therefore, upon them with loud proclamation, and with your testimony, fearing them not, for they are as grass, and all their glory as the flower thereof, which soon falleth, that they may be left also without excuse, and that I may visit them in the day of visitation when I shall unveil the face of my covering, to appoint the portion of the oppressor among hypocrites, where there is gnashing of teeth, if they reject my servants and my testimony which I have revealed unto them. And again, I will visit and soften their hearts, many of them for your good, that ye may find grace in their eyes, that they may come to the light of truth, and the exaltation or lifting up of Zion. For the day of my visitation cometh speedily, in an hour when ye think not of and where shall be the safety of my people, and refuge for those who shall be left of them?
3. Awake! O kings of the earth! Come ye, O come ye, with your gold

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and your silver, to the help of my people, to the house of the daughters of Zion!
4. And again, verily I say unto you, Let my servant Robert B. Thompson help you to write this proclamation; for I am well pleased with him and that he should be with you; let him therefore, hearken to your counsel and I will bless him with a multiplicity of blessings; let him be faithful and true in all things from henceforth, and he shall be great in mine eyes; but let him remember that his stewardship will I require at his hands.
5. And again, verily I say unto you, Blessed is my servant Hyrum Smith, for I, the Lord, love him, because of the integrity of his heart and because he loveth that which is right before me saith the Lord
6. Again, let my servant John C. Bennett, help you in your labor in sending my word to the kings of the people of the earth, and stand by you, even you my servant Joseph Smith, in the hour of affliction, and his reward shall not fail, if he receive counsel; and for his love he shall be great; for he shall be mine if he do this, saith the Lord. I have seen the work which he hath done, which I accept, if he continue, and will crown him with blessings and great glory.
7. And again, I say unto you, that it is my will that my servant Lyman Wight should continue in preaching for Zion, in the spirit of meekness. confessing me before the world, and I will bear him up as on eagle's wings, and he shall beget glory and honor to himself, and unto my name, that when he shall finish his work, that I may receive him unto myself, even as I did my servant David Patten, who is with me at this time, and also my servant Edward Partridge, and also my aged servant Joseph Smith, Sr., who sitteth with Abraham, at his right hand and blessed and holy is he, for he is mine.
8. And again, verily I say unto you, My servant George Miller is without guile; he may be trusted because of the integrity of his heart; and for the love which he has to my testimony, I, the Lord, love him: I therefore, say unto you, I seal upon his head the office of a bishopric like unto my servant Edward Partridge, that he may receive the consecrations of mine house, that he may administer blessings upon the heads of the poor of my people, saith the Lord. Let no man despise my servant George, for he shall honor me.
9. Let my servant George, and my servant Lyman, and my servant John Snider, and others, build a house unto my name, such a one as my servant Joseph shall show unto them; upon the place which he shall show unto them also. And it shall be for a house for boarding, a house that strangers may come from afar to lodge therein; therefore, let it be a good house, worthy of all acceptation, that the weary traveler may find health and safety while he shall contemplate the word of the Lord and the corner stone I have appointed for Zion. This house shall be a healthy habitation, if it be built unto my name, and if the governor which shall be appointed unto it shall not suffer any pollution to come upon it. It shall be holy, or the Lord your God will not dwell therein.
10. And again, verily I say unto you, Let all my saints come from afar, and send ye swift messengers, yea, chosen messengers; and say unto them. Come ye, with all your gold, and your silver, and your precious stones, and with all your antiquities; and with all who have knowledge of antiquities, that will come may come, and bring the box tree and the fir tree, and the pine tree, together with all the precious trees of the earth; and with iron, with copper, and with brass, and with zinc and with all your precious things of the earth, and build a house to my name, for the Most High to dwell therein; for there is not a place found on earth that he may come and restore again that which was lost unto you or, which he hath taken away, even the fullness of the priesthood;

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for a baptismal font there is not upon the earth; that they, my saints, may be baptized for those who are dead; for this ordinance belongeth to my house, and cannot be acceptable to me, only in the days of your poverty, wherein ye are not able to build a house unto me. But I command you, all ye my saints, to build a house unto me; and I grant unto you a sufficient time to build a house unto me, and during this time your baptisms shall be acceptable unto me.
11. But, behold, at the end of this appointment your baptisms for your dead shall not be acceptable unto me; and if you do not these things at the end of the appointment, ye shall be rejected as a church with your dead, saith the Lord your God. For, verily I say unto you, that after you have had sufficient time to build a house to me, wherein the ordinance of baptizing for the dead belongeth, and for which the same was instituted from before the foundation of the world, your baptisms for your dead cannot be acceptable unto me; for therein are the keys of the holy priesthood ordained, that you may receive honor and glory. And after this time, your baptisms for the dead, by those who are scattered abroad, are not acceptable unto me, saith the Lord; for it is ordained that in Zion, and in her stakes, and in Jerusalem, those places which I have appointed for refuge, shall be the places for your baptisms for your dead.
12 And again, verily I say unto you, How shall your washings be acceptable unto me, except ye perform them in a house which you have built to my name? For, for this cause I commanded Moses that he should build a tabernacle, that they should bear it with them in the wilderness, and to build a house in the land of promise, that those ordinances might be revealed which had been hid from before the world was therefore, verily I say unto you, that your anointings, and your washings, and your baptisms for the dead, and your solemn assemblies, and your memorials for your sacrifices, by the sons of Levi, and for your oracles in your most holy places, wherein you receive conversations, and your statutes and judgments, for the beginning of the revelations and foundation of Zion, and for the glory, honor, and endowment of all her municipals, are ordained by the ordinance of my holy house, which my people are always commanded to build unto my holy name.
13. And verily I say unto you, Let this house be built unto my name that I may reveal mine ordinances therein, unto my people; for I deign to reveal unto my church things which have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world; things that pertain to the dispensation of the fullness of times; and I will show unto my servant Joseph all things pertaining to this house, and the priesthood thereof; and the place whereon it shall be built; and ye shall build it on the place where you have contemplated building it; for that is the spot which I have chosen for you to build it. If ye labor with all your might, I will consecrate that spot, that it shall be made holy; and if my people will hearken unto my voice, and unto the voice of my servants whom I have appointed to lead my people, behold, verily I say unto you, they shall not be moved out of their place. But if they will not hearken to my voice, nor unto the voice of these men whom I have appointed, they shall not be blessed because they pollute mine holy grounds, and mine holy ordinances and charters, and my holy words, which I give unto them.
14. And it shall come to pass, that if you build a house unto my name and do not do the things that I say, I will not perform the oath which I make unto you, neither fulfill the promises which ye expect at my hands, saith the Lord; for instead of blessings, ye, by your own works, bring cursings wrath, indignation, and judgments, upon your own heads, by your follies, and by all your abominations, which you practice before me, saith the Lord.

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15. Verily, verily I say unto you, that when I give a commandment to any of the sons of men, to do a work unto my name, and those sons of men go with all their might and with all they have, to perform that work, and cease not their diligence, and their enemies come upon them, and hinder them performing that work; behold, it behooveth me to require that work no more at the hands of those sons of men, but to accept of their offerings; and the iniquity and transgression of my holy laws and commandments, I will visit upon the heads of those who hindered my work, unto the third and fourth generation, so long as they repent not, and hate me, saith the Lord God. Therefore, for this cause have I accepted the offerings of those whom I commanded to build up a city and a house unto my name, in Jackson County, Missouri, and were hindered by their enemies, saith the Lord your God; and I will answer judgment, wrath and indignation, wailing and anguish, and gnashing of teeth, upon their heads, unto the third and fourth generation, so long as they repent not, and hate me, saith the Lord your God.
16. And this I make an example unto you, for your consolation, concerning all those who have been commanded to do a work, and have been hindered by the hands of their enemies, and by oppression, saith the Lord your God; for I am the Lord your God, and will save all those of your brethren who have been pure in heart, and have been slain in the land of Missouri, saith the Lord.
17. And again, verily I say unto you, I command you again to build a house to my name, even in this place, that you may prove yourselves unto me that ye are faithful in all things whatsoever I command you, that I may bless you, and crown you with honor, immortality, and eternal life.
18. And now I say unto you, as pertaining to my boarding house which I have commanded you to build, for the boarding of strangers, Let it be built unto my name, and let my name be named upon it, and let my servant Joseph and his house have place therein, from generation to generation; for this anointing have I put upon his head, that his blessing shall also be put upon the head of his posterity after him; and as I said unto Abraham, concerning the kindreds of the earth, even so I say unto my servant Joseph, In thee, and in thy seed, shall the kindred of the earth be blessed. Therefore, let my servant Joseph, and his seed after him, have place in that house, from generation to generation, for ever and ever, saith the Lord, and let the name of that house be called the Nauvoo House; and let it be a delightful habitation for man, and a resting place for the weary traveler, that he may contemplate the glory of Zion, and the glory of this the corner stone thereof; that he may receive also the counsel from those whom I have set to be as plants of renown, and as watchmen upon her walls.
19. Behold, verily I say unto you, Let my servant George Miller, and my servant Lyman Wight, and my servant John Snider, and my servant Peter Haws, organize themselves, and appoint one of them to be a president over their quorum for the purpose of building that house. And they shall form a constitution whereby they may receive stock for the building of that house. And they shall not receive less than fifty dollars for a share of stock in that house, and they shall be permitted to receive fifteen thousand dollars from any one man for stock in that house; but they shall not be permitted to receive over fifteen thousand dollars stock from any one man; and they shall not be permitted to receive under fifty dollars for a share of stock from any one man, in that house; and they shall not be permitted to receive any man as a stockholder in this house, except the same shall pay his stock into their hands at the time he receives stock; and in proportion to the amount of stock he pays into their hands, he shall receive stock in that house; but if he pay nothing

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into their hands, he shall not receive any stock in that house. And if any pay stock into their hands, it shall be for stock in that house, for himself, and for his generation after him, from generation to generation, so long as he and his heirs shall hold that stock, and do not sell or convey the stock away out of their hands by their own free will and act, if you will do my will, saith the Lord your God.
20. And again, verily I say unto you, If my servant George Miller, and my servant Lyman Wight, and my servant John Snider, and my servant Peter Haws, receive any stock into their hands, in moneys, or in properties, wherein they receive the real value of moneys, they shall not appropriate any portion of that stock to any other purpose, only in that house; and if they do appropriate any portion of that stock anywhere else, only in that house, without the consent of the stockholder, and do not repay fourfold for the stock which they appropriate anywhere else, only in that house, they shall be accursed, and shall be moved out of their place, saith the Lord God; for I, the Lord, am God, and cannot be mocked in any of these things.
21. Verily I say unto you, Let my servant Joseph pay stock into their hands for the building of that house, as seemeth him good; but my servant Joseph cannot pay over fifteen thousand dollars stock in that house, nor under fifty dollars; neither can any other man, saith the Lord.
22. And there are others also, who wish to know my will concerning them; for they have asked it at my hands; therefore, I say unto you, concerning my servant Vinson Knight, If he will do my will, let him put stock into that house for himself and for his generation after him, from generation to generation, and let him lift up his voice, long and loud, in the midst of the people, to plead the cause of the poor and the needy, and let him not fail, neither let his heart faint, and I will accept of his offerings; for they shall not be unto me as the offerings of Cain, for he shall be mine, saith the Lord. Let his family rejoice, and turn away their hearts from affliction, for I have chosen him and anointed him, and he shall be honored in the midst of his house, for I will forgive all his sins, saith the Lord. Amen.
23. Verily I say unto you, Let my servant Hyrum put stock into that house, as seemeth him good, for himself and his generation after him, from generation to generation.
24. Let my servant Isaac Galland put stock into that house, for I, the Lord, love him for the work he hath done, and will forgive all his sins; therefore, let him be remembered for an interest in that house from generation to generation. Let my servant Isaac Galland be appointed among you, and be ordained by my servant William Marks, and be blessed of him, to go with my servant Hyrum, to accomplish the work that my servant Joseph shall point out to them, and they shall be greatly blessed.
25. Let my servant William Marks pay stock into that house, as it seemeth him good, for himself and his generation, from generation to generation.
26. Let my servant Henry G. Sherwood pay stock into that house, as seemeth him good, for himself and his seed after him, from generation to generation.
27. Let my servant William Law pay stock into that house, for himself and his seed after him, from generation to generation. If he will do my will, let him not take his family unto the eastern lands, even unto Kirtland; nevertheless, I, the Lord, will build up Kirtland, but I, the Lord, have a scourge prepared for the inhabitants thereof. And with my servant Almon Babbitt there are many things with which I am not well pleased; behold, he aspireth to establish his council instead of the

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council which I have ordained, even the presidency of my church, and he setteth up a golden calf for the worship of my people. Let no man go from this place who has come here essaying to keep my commandments. If they live here let them live unto me; and if they die let them die unto me; for they shall rest from all their labors here, and shall continue their works. Therefore let my servant William put his trust in me, and cease to fear concerning his family, because of the sickness of the land. If ye love me, keep my commandments, and the sickness of the land shall redound to your glory.
28. Let my servant William go and proclaim my everlasting gospel with a loud voice, and with great joy, as he shall be moved upon by my Spirit, unto the inhabitants of Warsaw, and also unto the inhabitants of Carthage, and also unto the inhabitants of Burlington and also unto the inhabitants of Madison, and await patiently and diligently for further instructions at my general conference, saith the Lord. If he will do my will, let him from henceforth hearken to the counsel of my servant Joseph, and with his interest support the cause of the poor, and publish the new translation of my holy word unto the inhabitants of the earth; and if he will do this, I will bless him with a multiplicity of blessings, that he shall not be forsaken, nor his seed be found begging bread.
29. And again, verily I say unto you, Let my servant William be appointed, ordained, and anointed, as a counselor unto my servant Joseph, in the room of my servant Hyrum; that my servant Hyrum may take the office of priesthood and patriarch, which was appointed unto him by his father, by blessing and also by right, that from henceforth he shall hold the keys of the patriarchal blessings upon the heads of all my people, that whoever he blesses shall be blessed, and whoever he curseth shall be cursed; that whatsoever he shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever he shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven; and from this time forth, I appoint unto him that he may be a prophet, and a seer, and a revelator unto my church, as well as my servant Joseph, that he may act in concert also with my servant Joseph, and that he shall receive counsel from my servant Joseph, who shall show unto him the keys whereby he may ask and receive, and be crowned with the same blessing, and glory, and honor, and priesthood and gifts of the priesthood, that once were put upon him that was my servant Oliver Cowdery; that my servant Hyrum may bear record of the things which I shall show unto him, that his name may be had in honorable remembrance from generation to generation, forever and ever.
30. Let my servant William Law also receive the keys by which he may ask and receive blessings; let him be humble before me, and be without guile, and he shall receive of my Spirit, even the Comforter, which shall manifest unto him the truth of all things, and shall give him, in the very hour, what he shall say, and these signs shall follow him: He shall heal the sick, he shall cast out devils, and shall be delivered from those who would administer unto him deadly poison, and he shall be led in paths where the poisonous serpent cannot lay hold upon his heel, and he shall mount up in the imagination of his thoughts as upon eagle's wings; and what if I will that he should raise the dead, let him not withhold his voice. Therefore let my servant William cry aloud and spare not, with joy and rejoicing, and with hosannas to him that sitteth upon the throne forever and ever, saith the Lord your God.
31. Behold, I say unto you, I have a mission in store for my servant William, and my servant Hyrum, and for them alone; and let my servant Joseph tarry at home, for he is needed. The remainder I will show unto you hereafter. Even so. Amen.
32. And again, verily I say unto you, If my servant Sidney will serve me, and be counselor unto my servant Joseph, let him arise and come up

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and stand in the office of his calling and humble himself before me; and if he will offer unto me an acceptable offering, and acknowledgments, and remain with my people, behold, I, the Lord, your God, will heal him that he shall be healed; and he shall lift up his voice again on the mountains, and be a spokesman before my face. Let him come and locate his family in the neighborhood in which my servant Joseph resides, and, in all his journeyings let him lift up his voice as with the sound of a trump, and warn the inhabitants of the earth to flee the wrath to come; let him assist my servant Joseph: and also let my servant William Law assist my servant Joseph in making a solemn proclamation unto the kings of the earth, even as I have before said unto you. If my servant Sidney will do my will, let him not remove his family unto the eastern lands, but let him change their habitation, even as I have said. Behold, it is not my will that he shall seek to find safety and refuge out of the city which I have appointed unto you, even the city of Nauvoo. Verily I say unto you, Even now, if he will hearken to my voice, it shall be well with him. Even so. Amen.
33. And again, verily I say unto you, let my servant Amos Davis pay stock into the hands of those whom I have appointed to build a house for boarding, even the Nauvoo House; this let him do if he will have an interest, and let him hearken unto the counsel of my servant Joseph, and labor with his own hands, that he may obtain the confidence of men; and when he shall prove himself faithful in all things that shall be intrusted unto his care-yea, even a few things-he shall be made ruler over many; let him, therefore, abase himself that he may be exalted. Even so. Amen.
34. And again, verily I say unto you, If my servant Robert D. Foster will obey my voice, let him build a house for my servant Joseph, according to the contract which he has made with him, as the door shall be open to him from time to time; and let him repent of all his folly, and clothe himself with charity, and cease to do evil, and lay aside all his hard speeches, and pay stock also into the hands of the quorum of the Nauvoo House, for himself and for his generation after him, from generation to generation, and hearken unto the counsel of my servants Joseph and Hyrum and William Law, and unto the authorities which I have called to lay the foundation of Zion, and it shall be well with him forever and ever. Even so. Amen.
35. And again, verily I say unto you, Let no man pay stock to the quorum of the Nauvoo House unless he shall be a believer in the Book of Mormon and the revelations I have given unto you, saith the Lord your God; for that which is more or less than this cometh of evil, and shall be attended with cursings, and not blessings, saith the Lord your God. Even so. Amen.
36. And again, verily I say unto you, Let the quorum of the Nauvoo House have a just recompense of wages for all their labors which they do in building the Nauvoo House, and let their wages be as shall be agreed among themselves, as pertaining to the price thereof; and let every man who pays stock bear his proportion of their wages, if it must needs be, for their support, saith the Lord, otherwise their labors shall be accounted unto them for stock in that house. Even so. Amen.
37. Verily I say unto you, I now give unto you the officers belonging to my priesthood, that ye may hold the keys thereof, even the priesthood which is after the order of Melchisedec, which is after the order of my only begotten Son.
38. First, I give unto you Hyrum Smith to be a patriarch unto you, to hold the sealing blessings of my church, even the Holy Spirit of promise, whereby ye are sealed up unto the day of redemption, that ye may not fall, notwithstanding the hour of temptation that may come upon you.

(page 511)


On Sunday, January 24, 1841, Hyrum Smith was received as Patriarch of the church to succeed his father, Joseph Smith, Sr. William Law had by revelation been appointed one of the First Presidency in place of Hyrum Smith.

39. I give unto you my servant Joseph, to be a presiding elder over all my church, to be a translator, a revelator, a seer, and prophet. I give unto him for counselors my servant Sidney Rigdon and my servant William Law, that these may constitute a quorum and first presidency, to receive the oracles for the whole church.
40. I give unto you my servant Brigham Young, to be a president over the twelve traveling council, which twelve hold the keys to open up the authority of my kingdom upon the four corners of the earth, and after that to send my word to every creature; they are: Heber C. Kimball Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Orson Hyde, William Smith, John Taylor John E. Page, Wilford Woodruff, Willard Richards, George A. Smith. David Patten I have taken unto myself; behold, his priesthood no man taketh from him; but verily I say unto you, Another may be appointed unto the same calling.
41. And again I say unto you, I give unto you a high council, for the cornerstone of Zion; viz.: Samuel Bent, H. G. Sherwood, George W. Harris, Charles C. Rich, Thomas Grover, Newel Knight, David Dort, Dunbar Wilson. Seymour Brunson I have taken unto myself; no man taketh his priesthood, but another may be appointed unto the same priesthood in his stead (and verily I say unto you, let my servant Aaron Johnson be ordained unto this calling in his stead), David Fulmer, Alpheus Cutler, William Huntington.
42. And again, I give unto you Don C. Smith to be a president over a quorum of high priests, which ordinance is instituted for the purpose of qualifying those who shall be appointed standing presidents or servants over different stakes scattered abroad, and they may travel, also, if they choose but rather be ordained for standing presidents; this is the office of their calling, saith the Lord your God. I give unto him Amasa Lyman and Noah Packard for counselors, that they may preside over the quorum of high priests of my church, saith the Lord.
43. And again I say unto you, I give unto you John A. Hicks, Samuel Williams, and Jesse Baker, which priesthood is to preside over the quorum of elders, which quorum is instituted for standing ministers; nevertheless they may travel, yet they are ordained to be standing ministers to my church, saith the Lord.
44. And again, I give unto you Joseph Young, Josiah Butterfield, Daniel Miles, Henry Herriman, Zera Pulsipher, Levi Hancock, James Foster, to preside over the quorum of seventies, which quorum is instituted for traveling elders to bear record of my name in all the world wherever the traveling high council, my apostles, shall send them to prepare a way before my face. The difference between this quorum and the quorum of elders is, that one is to travel continually, and the other is to preside over the churches from time to time; the one has the responsibility of presiding from time to time, and the other has no responsibility of presiding, saith the Lord your God.
45. And again, I say unto you, I give unto you Vinson Knight, Samuel H. Smith, and Shadrach Roundy, if he will receive it, to preside over the bishopric, a knowledge of said bishopric is given unto you, in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants.
46. And, again I say unto you, Samuel Rolfe and his counselors for priests, and the president of the teachers and his counselors, and

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George Miller had by revelation been appointed Bishop to succeed Edward Partridge, deceased.

On Monday, January 24, Mary, wife of Samuel H. Smith, died. 3 Saturday, January 30, 1841, at a special conference held at Nauvoo, President Joseph Smith was appointed "sole Trustee in Trust for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints."

Some murmurings of discontent and threats of violence

also the president of the deacons and his counselors, and also the president of the stake and his counselors: The above offices I have given unto you, and the keys thereof, for helps and for governments, for the work of the ministry, and the perfecting of my saints, and a commandment I give unto you that you should fill all these offices and approve of those names which I have mentioned, or else disapprove of them, at my general conference, and that ye should prepare rooms for all these offices in my house when you build it unto my name, saith the Lord your God. Even so. Amen.
3 DIED.-In this city, January 25, Mary, consort of Samuel E. Smith, aged thirty-one years. She has left four small children, an affectionate companion, and numerous relatives and friends to mourn her loss, a loss which is easier felt than described. Mrs. Smith was one of the first who embraced the fullness of the gospel in the New England States. She was a resident of the city of Boston, Massachusetts, surrounded with friends and the comforts of life; but there was no sacrifice too great for her to make for Jesus Christ and his cause, and in A. D. 1833, in company with Miss Coolbrith (now the companion of my bosom), she bade farewell to friends and connections and everything most dear, and traveled the distance of one thousand miles to Kirtland, Ohio, with no human protector but the one above-named, to associate with the saints, in obedience to the commands of God and the instructions of the inspired prophets and apostles.
She has ever manifested a willingness to endure persecution and affliction for Christ's sake, and it has been her lot to suffer much for the sake of the gospel; her companion being stripped of his goods and made desolate by the enemies of truth, they suffered much in journeying to Missouri, being exposed for the want of the comforts of life. They located in Daviess County, Missouri, and while in childbed she was driven from her home by an infatuated mob, and exposed to a violent storm in the midst of an open prairie for several days, which brought her nigh unto death; she however recovered to witness more distressing scenes, all of which would be lengthy to enumerate, and too disgraceful to harrow up the soul of the reader. We will state, however, that before she had recovered of her illness, her companion had to flee for his life and leave her to the mercy of an infuriated community, while he wandered through the wilderness for the space of fourteen days without seeing one white inhabitant, and the most of the time without food. The reader can judge that her journey to Illinois must be attended with suffering, being robbed of their all. But she is gone-she "rests from her labors," she has been patient in all her afflictions-has kept the faith, and will inherit eternal life, which is the greatest gift of God.-ED.-Times and Seasons, vol. 2, pp. 324, 325.

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had been heard in different places, principally in Adams County, Illinois, for some months past. 4

On February 1, 1841, the first election under the new charter was held, which resulted in the election of John C. Bennett mayor, Daniel H. Wells, William Marks, Samuel H. Smith, and N. K. Whitney aldermen; Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon, C. C. Rich, J. T. Barnett, Wilson Law, D. C. Smith, J. P. Green, and Vinson Knight, councilors.

On February 3, the council met, and in accordance with the privilege granted in the charter authorized the organization of the "University of Nauvoo" and the "Nauvoo Legion."

The militia met on the 4th, and organized the Nauvoo Legion by the election of Joseph Smith, Lieutenant General; John C. Bennett, Major General;

We regret to learn that the fell spirit of persecution towards this religious denomination, which has cast such a reproach upon the people of Missouri, is taking root in our own State. We will not go so far as to call the leaders of the Mormons martyr-mongers, but we believe they are men of sufficient sagacity to profit by anything in the shape of persecution, and fear but little from it. To constitute martyrdom, there must be both persecution and sympathy; and with a humane people the latter follows the former. The Mormons have greatly profited by their persecution in Missouri, and let war be commenced here so that the first person shall be killed, and the cry of martyrdom is heralded throughout the Union to the great profit of the Mormons and the disgrace of our State.
But what is this Mormon religion that the intrinsic excellence of the code of our blessed Savior is insufficient to compete with it without physical force? Are we to glorify a God of infinite mercy and goodness by worshiping [worshipping] him as a Moloch who delights in human sacrifices? Will the destruction of a few enlighten the minds of the other Mormons? But there is no reasoning with religious persecutors, generally the foulest hypocrites on earth, whose burning zeal for the Lord and Savior is generally lighted up at the altar of worldly ambition. A minister who is afraid to encounter the doctrines of Joe Smith should be made to quit the pulpit; and the man who enlists in a personal crusade against the Mormons, who have a right to preach just what they please, should suffer the proper penalty for larceny, arson, or murder, as the case be. Let Illinois repeat the bloody tragedies of Missouri and one or two other States follow, and the Mormon religion will not only be known throughout our land, but will be very extensively embraced. We hope the friends of civil order in the Bounty Tract will extinguish this smoldering fire of persecution, knowing that a fire merely material can never do away with the intellectual darkness of the Mormons.-Chicago Democrat. (Times and Seasons, vol. 2 p. 303.)

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Wilson Law, Brigadier General of the First Cohort; 5 D. C. Smith, Brigadier General of the Second Cohort. 6 The Lieutenant General chose as his staff Captain A. P. Rockwood, Drill Officer; Captains William Law and R. B. Thompson, aids-de-camp; for guards and assistant aids-de-camp; James Allred, Thomas Grover, C. M. Kreymeyer, John L Butler, John Snider, Alpheus Cutler, Reynolds Cahoon, Elias Higbee, H. G. Sherwood, Shadrach Roundy, Samuel H. Smith, and Vinson Knight.

We mention this military organization because many of the church authorities were engaged in it, and thereby closely associated it with church history; but as it was in fact an organization separate and distinct from the church, and in its government essentially different, we shall not hereafter write the details of its history, but only mention it incidentally as it concerns the historical narrative.

It was authorized by the legislature of the State and was without question legal, and every citizen had the legal right to enlist in its service. And it should be remembered that under the law all able-bodied men were required to do military duty.

As to the wisdom and expediency of high church officials holding military office and receiving military honors, we have nothing to say in this connection. We think it very inconsistent to claim that it was wise because Joseph Smith did it; but on the other hand, we think it just as inconsistent to condemn in Joseph Smith what we justify in other American citizens.

On February 13, 1841, Orson Hyde sailed from New York for Liverpool, on his way to Jerusalem, accompanied by George J. Adams. John E. Page, for some causes hereafter explained, failed to go.

The City Council, composed mostly of church members, on February 15, 1841, passed a resolution which shows them to have been fully abreast if not in

5 Horse troop.
6 Foot troop.

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advance of their time on the subject of vending of intoxicants. 7

Joseph Smith in his history states regarding this ordinance:-

"In the discussion of the foregoing bill, I spoke at great length on the use of liquors, and showed that it was unnecessary, and operates as a poison in the stomach, and that roots and herbs can be found to effect all necessary purposes.

In harmony with the provisions of the late revelation steps were taken for the building of the "Nauvoo House," which resulted in the passage of the following act by the legislature:-



"Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, that George Miller, Lyman Wight, John Snider, and Peter Haws, and their associates, are hereby declared a body corporate, under the name and style of the 'Nauvoo House Association;' and they are hereby authorized to erect and furnish a public house of entertainment, to be called the 'Nauvoo House.'

"Sec. 2. The above-named George Miller, Lyman Wight, John Snider, and Peter Haws, are hereby declared to be the trustees of said association, with full power and authority

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the city of Nauvoo, That all persons and establishments whatever, in this city, are prohibited from vending whisky in a less quantity than a gallon, or other spirituous liquors in a less quantity than a quart, to any person whatever, excepting on the recommendation of a physician duly accredited in writing by the "Chancellor and Regents of the University of the City of Nauvoo;" and any person guilty of any act contrary to the prohibition contained in this ordinance shall, on conviction thereof before the Mayor or Municipal Court, be fined in any sum not exceeding twenty-five dollars, at the discretion of said Mayor or court; and any person or persons who shall attempt to evade this ordinance by giving away liquor, or by any other means, shall be considered alike amenable, and fined as aforesaid.
Sec. 2. This ordinance to take effect and be in force from and after its passage.
Passed February 15, A. D. 1841.
-Times and Seasons, vol. 2, p, 321.

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to hold in joint tenancy, by themselves and their successors in office, a certain lot in the city of Nauvoo, in the county of Hancock, and State of Illinois, known and designated on the plot of said city as the south half of lot numbered fifty-six, for the purpose of erecting thereon the house contemplated in the first section of this act.

"Sec. 3. The said trustees are further authorized and empowered to obtain by stock subscription, by themselves or their duly authorized agents, the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which shall be divided into shares of fifty dollars each.

"Sec. 4. No individual shall be permitted to hold more than three hundred, nor less than one share of stock, and certificates of stock shall be delivered to subscribers so soon as their subscriptions are paid in, and not before.

"Sec. 5. As soon as the contemplated house shall have been completed and furnished, the stockholders shall appoint such agents as the trustees may deem necessary in the management of the affairs of said association.

"Sec. 6. The trustees shall have power to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, in any court of this State, in the name and style of the 'Trustees of the Nauvoo House Association.'

"Sec. 7. They shall also take the general care and supervision in procuring materials for said house, and constructing and erecting the same, and further to superintend its general management, and to do and perform all matters and things which may be necessary to be done, in order to secure the interests and promote the objects of this association.

"Sec. 8. This association shall continue twenty years from the passage of this act, and the house herein provided for shall be kept for the accommodation of strangers, travelers, and all other persons who may resort thereto for rest and refreshment.

"Sec 9. It is moreover established as a perpetual rule of said house, to be observed by all persons who may keep or occupy the same, that spirituous liquors of every description are prohibited, and that such liquor shall never be vended as a beverage, or introduced into common use, in said house.

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"Sec. 10. And, whereas Joseph Smith has furnished the said association with the ground whereon to erect said house, it is further declared that the said Smith and his heirs shall hold, by perpetual succession, a suit of rooms in the said house, to be set apart and conveyed in due form of law to him and his heirs by the said trustees, as soon as the same are completed.

"Sec. 11. The Board of Trustees shall appoint one of their number as President thereof.

"Approved February 23, 1841.

"THOS. CARLIN, Governor.

"W. L. D. EWING,

Speaker of the House of Representatives.


Speaker of the Senate.

"State of Illinois, Office of Sec. State, s. s.

"I, Stephen A. Douglas, Secretary of State, do hereby certify the foregoing to be a true and perfect copy of the enrolled law on file in my office.

"Witness my hand and seal of State."

SPRINGFIELD, Feb. 24, A. D. 1841.

"S. A. DOUGLAS, Secretary of State."

{ L. S.}

-Millennial Star, vol. 18, pp. 391, 392.

These articles speak for themselves. We invite special attention to the article prohibiting the sale or use of liquor in the house. An ordinance offered to the City Council by Joseph Smith by them adopted shows broad and liberal toleration on the subject of religion. 8

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the city of Nauvoo, that the Catholics. Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Latter Day Saints, Quakers, Episcopalians, Universalists, Unitarians, Mohammedans, and all other religious sects and denominations, whatever, shall have free toleration and equal privileges in this city; and should any person be guilty of ridiculing, abusing, or otherwise depreciating another, in consequence of his religion, or of disturbing or interrupting any religious meeting within the limits of this city, he shall on conviction thereof before the Mayor, or Municipal Court, be considered a disturber of the public peace, and fined in any sum not exceeding five hundred dollars or imprisoned not exceeding six months, or both, at the discretion of said Mayor, or court.
Sec. 2. It is hereby made the duty or all municipal officers to notice,

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Soon after the passage of this act another passed the legislature and was duly signed on March 10, 1841, entitled, "An Act to Incorporate the Nauvoo Agricultural and Manufacturing Association in the County of Hancock."

Companies leaving England for America were quite frequent about this time; some landing at New York, and some at New Orleans.

Sunday, March 21. The quorums of the Aaronic priesthood were organized by Bishops Whitney, Miller, Higbee, and Knight. Samuel Rolfe was chosen President of the Priests' Quorum with Stephen Markham and Hezekiah Peck as counselors. Elisha Everett, with J. W. Huntsman, James Hendricks, counselors, was chosen to the presidency of the Teachers' Quorum. Phineas R. Bird, with David Wood and W. W. Lane counselors, to the presidency of the Deacons' Quorum.

March 29, William Marks, President of the Nauvoo stake, made choice of A. C. Rich and Austin Cowles as counselors

Previous preparation having been made, the corner stones of the Nauvoo Temple were laid on April 6,1841, with appropriate and imposing ceremonies by and under the direction of the First Presidency.

The General Annual Conference convened at Nauvoo on April 7,1841. From the minutes as published in Times and Seasons we glean the following facts:-

"President Smith observed that it was necessary that some one should be appointed to fill the Quorum of the Twelve in the room of the late Elder Davis W. Patten,

and report to the Mayor any breach or violation of this or any other ordinance of this city that may come within their knowledge or of which they may be advised; and any officer aforesaid is hereby fully authorized to arrest all such violators of rule, law, and order, either with or without process.
Sec. 3. This ordinance to take effect and be in force from and after its passage. Passed March 1, A. D. 1841.
-Times and Seasons vol. 2, pp. 336, 337.

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whereupon President Rigdon nominated Elder Lyman Wight to that office, which was unanimously accepted."

On presentation of the quorums to be sustained the following were objected to: John A. Hicks, President of the Elders' Quorum, Bishop Alanson Ripley, John E. Page of the Twelve, and Noah Packard of the High Priests. Upon motion of Bishop N. E. Whitney they were referred to their several quorums. James Allred was appointed a member of the High Council in place of C. C. Rich, who had been chosen a counselor to the president of the stake.

John Murdock, Lyman Wight, William Smith, H. W. Miller, Amasa Lyman, Leonard Soby, Jehiel Savage, and Z. H. Gurley were appointed to travel and collect means for the purpose of building the temple.

The General Conference held at Manchester, England, at the same time reported 5,850 members, 136 elders, 303 priests, 169 teachers, and 68 deacons. In addition to these about 800 had emigrated to America during the season.

On Tuesday, April 21, 1841, Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, G. A. Smith, and Willard Richards, of the Twelve, with a company of about one hundred and thirty, sailed from Liverpool for New York, en route for Nauvoo; leaving P. P. Pratt, whose family was with him, in charge of the European mission; while Orson Hyde was to prosecute his appointed mission to Jerusalem.

April 24,1841, the High Council of Iowa selected David Pettigrew and Moses Nickerson counselors to President John Smith, in place of Reynolds Cahoon, removed to Nauvoo, and Lyman Wight, ordained an Apostle of the Quorum of Twelve.

With the issue of Times and Seasons for May 1, R. B. Thompson became associated with Don C. Smith in the editorial conduct of the paper.

May 2 the Teachers' Quorum was organized in Nauvoo, Elisha Everett president, James Hendricks and J. W. Huntsman counselors.

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On May 2 Hon. Stephan A. Douglas and Cyrus Walker, Esq., visited Nauvoo and addressed the citizens. They and the people of Nauvoo seemed to be mutually pleased with the results of the visit. 9

9 CITY OF NAUVOO, May 6, 1841.
To the Editors of the Times and Seasons; Gentlemen:-I wish, through the medium of your paper to make known that on Sunday last I had the honor of receiving a visit from the Hon. Stephen A. Douglas Justice of the Supreme Court and Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State of Illinois, and Cyrus Walker, Esq., of Macomb, who expressed great pleasure in visiting our city, and were astonished at the improvements which were made. They were officially introduced to the congregation who had assembled on the meeting ground, by the mayor; and they severally addressed the assembly. Judge Douglas expressed his satisfaction of what he had seen and heard respecting our people and took that opportunity of returning thanks to the citizens of Nauvoo for conferring upon him the freedom of the city, stating that he was not aware of rendering us any service sufficiently important to deserve such marked honor; and likewise spoke in high terms of our location and the improvements we had made, and that our enterprise and industry were highly creditable to us indeed.
Mr. Walker spoke much in favor of the place, the industry of the citizens, etc., and hoped they would continue to enjoy all the blessings and privileges of our free and glorious Constitution, and as a patriot and a freeman he was willing at all times to stand boldly in defense of liberty and law.
It must indeed be satisfactory to this community to know that kind and generous feelings exist in the hearts of men of such high reputation and moral and intellectual worth.
Judge Douglas has ever proved himself friendly to this people; and interested himself to obtain for us our several charters, holding at that time the office of Secretary of State. Mr. Walker also ranks high, and has long held a standing at the bar which few attain, and is considered one of the most able and profound jurists in the State.
The sentiments they expressed on the occasion were highly honorable to them as American citizens and as gentlemen.
How different their conduct from that of the official characters in the State of Missouri, whose minds were prejudiced to such an extent that instead of mingling in our midst and ascertaining for themselves our character, kept entirely aloof, but were ready at all times to listen to those who had the "poison of adders under their tongues," and who sought our overthrow.
Let every person who may have imbibed sentiments prejudicial to us imitate the honorable example of our distinguished visitors (Douglas and Walker), and I believe they will find much less to condemn than they anticipated, and probably a great deal to commend.
What makes the late visit more pleasing is the fact that Messrs. Douglas and Walker have long been held in high estimation as politicians being champions of the two great parties that exist in the State; but laying aside all party strife, like brothers, citizens, and friends, they mingle with us, mutually disposed to extend to us courtesy, respect, and friendship, which I hope we shall ever be proud to reciprocate.
I am, very respectfully yours, etc.,
-Times and Seasons, vol. 2, p. 414.

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The success of the elders this summer was great. Many were uniting with the church in various places, and some notable miracles were done.

Elder Charles Thompson wrote from Batavia, New York, February 2, 1841:-

" . . . During the harvest I introduced the gospel into Batavia village. I preached seven times in the courthouse to attentive audiences composed of many of the first men in the place and others from the country round about. This served to break down much of the prejudice through this country. Since then we have had access to many neighborhoods through this region, and many are believing in almost every direction, and the Lord works with us and confirms the work with signs following them that believe; for they speak with new tongues and interpret them, many sick are healed, and even the deaf are made to hear and the dumb to speak. About two months since I baptized a man by the name of Shamp and wife, now residing in the village of Batavia, who had a daughter about six years old that was deaf and dumb. Since then through the laying on of hands and the anointing with oil in the name of the Lord she has been perfectly restored to hearing, and is beginning to talk. This has caused a great excitement; many come from various towns to see the person upon whom this great miracle has been wrought and to inquire of her parents concerning it, while the enemies of truth are doing their utmost to make people believe that no miracle has been wrought. Some have offered to swear that the child is deaf and dumb still, and others assert that the child began to hear and speak before the Mormons ever saw it. Thus like the false witness that came against Christ, their testimony does not agree together; but the parents of the child (like the parents of him who was blind) testify (and their testimony is backed by many of their neighbors both in the church and out) 'This is our child, and she was both deaf and dumb when we embraced "Mormonism," but now she both hears and speaks.' . . ."-Times and Seasons, vol. 2, p. 349.

May 22 and 23, a conference was held at Kirtland, Ohio. A. W. Babbitt was elected president of that stake, Lester Brooks

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and Zebedee Coltrin to be his counselors. Thomas Burdick was elected Bishop of Kirtland, and Hiram Winters and Reuben McBride his counselors. Hiram Kellog was elected President of the High Priests Quorum, John Knapp and Joseph Pine counselors; and Amos Babcock president of Elders Quorum, Otis Hobart and Thomas Green counselors. By-laws were adopted for the preservation of the Lord's house. 10

About this time the Twelve who sailed from Liverpool, April 21, arrived in New York. The issue of the Times and Seasons for June 1 contains a good article showing the "progress of the church." 11

10 Elders Brooks, Morton, and Norton, were appointed a committee to draft a set of by-laws for the preservation of the Lord's house
The committee reported a set of resolutions, which appoint two doorkeepers: that no person shall occupy the pulpits or stand unless entitled by office or invited; that if any person shall deface the said house they shall be punished according to law; that we will claim our right and be protected in our worship according to law; that no person shall be allowed to wear his hat on his head in the inner court; and that means be taken to prevent persons from defiling the inside of the house with tobacco cuds and tobacco spittle, and to prevent smoking.-Times and Seasons, vol. 2, p. 459.
More than ten years have passed away since the rise of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and although it has had to meet with difficulties from almost every source, it still survives, and at this moment, probably, is possessed of more strength and zeal than at any former period of its existence.
While tracing over the history of events which have transpired since its first commencement, and while calling to mind the scenes of affliction and persecution which the first propagators of our holy religion had to contend with, who nobly and honorably bore up under scenes of woe and distress which would have daunted persons less determined and resolute, we feel our bosoms animated with the same feelings as those which have frequently agitated our frame while reading the privations sufferings, valor, and achievements of our forefathers, who stemmed the current of corruption and oppression, bore up under difficulties and dangers sufficient to appall the stoutest heart, and counted not their lives dear, so that they could be privileged to bequeath to their posterity the invaluable blessings of liberty. The days of the Revolution were days that tried men's souls. The sycophant crouched to each party as it rose in power, and for the sake of gain frequently betrayed his best friends. But there was a band, resolute, determined, and invincible who scorned to crouch to power and popularity; a band in whose bosoms, under all circumstances, continued to burn the sacred flame of liberty. Many waters could not quench it, the winds of adversity could not extinguish it; it warmed them in the winter's blast, it cheered them in disappointment and in the gloomy prison, and survived them when their

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June 5,1841, President Joseph Smith was arrested on a requisition from the Governor of Missouri, and upon a writ issued the year before and returned without being executed. Joseph writes of this experience as follows:-

"I called on Governor Carlin, at his residence in Quincy.

bodies fell in the battlefield, covered with wounds and gore, to descend upon their posterity.
By their steadfastness, patience, and indomitable courage they effected the object they bound themselves by every sacred tie to accomplish. Victory perched on the warrior's shield, and the glad notes of peace were heard through the land. The patriot found himself surrounded by friends; his name was emblazoned on his country's banners, and on the hearts of tens of thousands, who duly appreciated his toils and who rejoiced in the liberty for which he nerved his arm in the day of battle The whole nation respected them and cheerfully awarded to them the honor and merit which were justly their due.
And shall not those who were the first to make a stand against iniquity corruption, and the false religious of the day, who have had to contend against a wicked and gainsaying people, and for their testimony have had to wade through scenes too heartrending to mention,-been tarred feathered, whipped, stoned, imprisoned,-be likewise rewarded for their toil and labor of love? Yea, verily; for they have given evidence of a love of liberty as strong, a courage as great, a spirit as indomitable as the fathers of the Revolution. These are the Elishas upon whom the flowing mantles of our Elijahs fell, who have honorably maintained their character in the sight of heaven and earth; and although some have died in the conflict and have entered into rest, yet their names will be had in remembrance from generation to generation, and they will be rewarded by the Judge of all the earth, who will do right. Those who yet survive have the assurance that their labors have not been in vain; they know that they have been crowned with success.
Ye noble-hearted scions of honored sires, may heaven's choicest blessings rest upon you; may your declining years be years of peace; may your children and your children's children enjoy all the blessings of that gospel which you struggled to establish; and may you see them flourish like the trees of Lebanon, your sons grow up as plants of renown, and your daughters be polished after the similitude of a palace. May all your wants both temporal and spiritual be supplied, and when you shall gather up your feet and bid adieu to mortality, may the sacred halo of glory surround your honored heads, and your posterity catch the sacred flame of liberty and love, to be handed down to generations yet unborn.
Cold is the heart of that man and unworthy the character of a saint of God who does not feel his bosom heave at the recital of the cruelties practiced upon the saints of the Most High, and does not appreciate the toils of the first elders.
Although they have no emblazoned urn to perpetuate their names, yet they live, and will continue to live in the hearts and affections of a church which is coming up out of the wilderness, "fair as the sun, clear as the moon, and terrible as an army with banners."
We do not suppose that the struggle has yet terminated, or that an unbroken scene of prosperity will attend the saints from this time forth. Such an idea would be incompatible with the word of God; but we do expect that although afflictions may be the lot of the saints, and they be

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During my visit with the Governor I was treated with the greatest kindness and respect; nothing was said about any requisition having come from the Governor of Missouri for my arrest. In a very few hours after I had left the Governor's residence he sent Thomas King, Sheriff of Adams County, Thomas Jasper, a constable of Quincy, and some others, as a posse, with an officer from Missouri, to arrest me and deliver me up to the authorities of Missouri.

"Saturday, 5th. While I was staying at Heberlin's Hotel, Bear Creek, about twenty-eight miles south of Nauvoo, Sheriff King and posse arrested me. Some of the posse, on learning the spirit of the officer of Missouri, left the company in disgust and returned to their own homes. I accordingly returned to Quincy and obtained a writ of habeas corpus from Charles A. Warren, Esq., Master in Chancery; and Judge Stephen A. Douglas happening to come to

driven from one city to another, yet the purposes of Jehovah will at the same time be consummating.
One thing, however, is certain: that Zion shall be established, her foundations shall be laid, her beauty shall astonish the world, and she become the glory of the whole earth. These things are decreed by the King of kings and Lord of lords, and he hath declared that heaven and earth may pass away, but not one jot or tittle of his word shall fall to the ground.
Knowing then that the work of the Lord is propelled by Almighty power, the saints can rest satisfied, under all circumstances, that it will roll forth with power and energy that shall comport with the purposes of Jehovah.
And if in the short space of ten years it has risen from obscurity, penetrated into the different States of the Union, spread and flourished in the European Isles, caused the wisdom of wise men to perish and the understanding of the prudent to be hid, risen above the persecutions of individuals and communities, and appears so marvelous in the eyes of this generation,-what may be expected ten years hence? Where is the individual whose mind is sufficient to grasp the fullness, extent, and glory of the church? None but those who catch the sacred spirit which animated the bosom of the prophets when they foretold of the glories of the last days, and when the visions of the Almighty rested upon them.
A field wide as eternity, a labor worthy the archangels, appear before the saints of God, and to accomplish which they must be faithful, diligent enterprising, and prepared to make whatever sacrifice the Almighty may require at their hands. By doing so they will not only be instrumental in securing the happiness of their fellow man, but their own; and when the judgment is set and the books are opened and every man rewarded according to his works, they will hear from the righteous Judge, "Well done, good and faithful servant, thou hast been faithful over a few things, now I will make thee ruler over many things, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord."-Times and Seasons, vol. 2, pp. 423, 424.

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Quincy that evening, he appointed to give a hearing on the writ on the Tuesday following, in Monmouth, Warren County, where the court would then commence a regular term. . . .

"Sunday, 6th. News of my arrest having arrived in Nauvoo last night and being circulated through the city, Hosea Stout, Tarleton Lewis, William A. Hickman, John S. Higbee, Elijah Able, Uriel C. Nickerson, and George W. Clyde started from the Nauvoo landing in a skiff, in order to overtake me, and rescue me if necessary. They had a heavy head wind, but arrived in Quincy at dusk, went up to Benjamin Jones' house, and found that I had gone to Nauvoo in charge of two officers.

"I returned to Nauvoo in charge of the officers (Sheriff King had been suddenly siezed [seized] with sickness-I nursed and waited upon him in my own house, so that he might be able to go to Monmouth), and notified several of my friends to get ready and accompany me the next morning.

"Monday, 7th. I started very early for Monmouth, seventy-five miles distant (taking Mr. King along with me, and attending him during his sickness), accompanied by Charles C. Rich, Amasa Lyman, Shadrach Roundy, Reynolds Cahoon, Charles Hopkins, Alfred Randall, Elias Higbee, Morris Phelps, John P. Green, Henry G. Sherwood, Joseph Younger, Darwin Chase, Ira Miles, Joel S. Miles, Lucien Woodworth, Vinson Knight, Robert B. Thompson, George Miller, and others. We traveled very late, camping about midnight on the road.

"Tuesday morning, 8th. Arrived at Monmouth and procured breakfast at the tavern; found great excitement prevailing in the public mind, and great curiosity was manifested by the citizens, who were extremely anxious to obtain 'a sight of the Prophet,' expecting to see me in chains. Mr. King (whose health was now partly restored) had considerable difficulty in protecting me from the mob that had gathered there. Mr. Sidney H. Little, for the defense, motioned 'That the case of Mr. Smith should be taken up,' but was objected to by the States' Attorney pro tem. on account of his not being prepared, not having had sufficient notice

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of the trial. It was accordingly, by mutual consent, postponed until Wednesday morning.

"In the evening great excitement prevailed, and the citizens employed several attorneys to plead against me.

"I was requested to preach to the citizens of Monmouth, but as I was a prisoner, I kept closeted in my room, for I could not even come down stairs to my meals but the people would be crowding the windows to get a peep at me, and therefore appointed Elder A. Lyman to preach in the courthouse on Wednesday evening.

"Wednesday, 9th. At an early hour the courthouse was filled with spectators desirous to hear the proceedings.

"Mr. Morrison on behalf of the people wished for time to send to Springfield for the indictment, it not being found with the rest of the papers. This course would have delayed the proceedings, and as it was not important to the issue, the attorneys for the defense admitted that there was an indictment, so that the investigation might proceed.

"Mr. Warren, for the defense, then read the petition, which stated that I was unlawfully held in custody, and that the indictment in Missouri was obtained by fraud, bribery, and duress, all of which I was prepared to prove.

"Mr. Little then called upon the following witnesses; viz., Morris Phelps, Elias Higbee, Reynolds Cahoon, and George W. Robinson, who were sworn. The counsel on the opposite side objected to hearing evidence on the merits of the case, as they could not go beyond the indictment. Upon this a warm and long discussion occurred, which occupied the attention of the court through the entire day.

"All the lawyers on the opposite side excepting two; viz., Messrs. Knowlton and Jennings, confined themselves to the merits of the case, and conducted themselves as gentlemen; but it was plainly evident that the design of Messrs. Knowlton and Jennings was to excite the public mind still more on the subject and inflame the passions of the people against me and my religion.

"The counsel on behalf of the defense, Messrs. Charles A. Warren, Sidney H. Little, O. H. Browning, James H. Ralston, Cyrus Walker, and Archibald Williams, acted nobly

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and honorably, and stood up in the defense of the persecuted in a manner worthy of high-minded and honorable gentlemen. Some had even been told that if they engaged on the side of the defense they need never look to the citizens of that county for any political favors; but they were not to be overawed by the popular clamor, or [to] be deterred from an act of public duty by any insinuations or threats whatever, and stated that if they had not before determined to take a part in the defense, they, after hearing the threats of the community, were now fully determined to discharge their duty. The counsel for the defense spoke well, without exception, and strongly urged the legality of the court examining testimony to prove that the whole proceedings on the part of Missouri were base and illegal, and that the indictment was obtained through fraud, bribery, and corruption.

"The court after hearing the counsel adjourned about half-past six o'clock p. m.

"While I was at dinner a man rushed in and said, 'Which is Joe Smith? I have got a five dollar Kirtland bill, and I'll be damned if he don't take it back I'll sue him, for his name is to it.' I replied, 'I am the man,' took the bill and paid him the specie; which he took very reluctantly, being anxious to kick up a fuss.

"The crowd in the court was so intense that Judge Douglas ordered the sheriff of Warren County to keep the spectators back; but he neglected doing so, when the Judge fined him ten dollars. In a few minutes he again ordered the sheriff to keep the men back from crowding the prisoner and witnesses. He replied, 'I have told a constable to do it,' when the Judge immediately said, 'Clerk, add ten dollars more to that fine.' The sheriff, finding neglect rather expensive, then attended to his duty.

"A young lawyer from Missouri volunteered to plead against me. He tried his utmost to convict me, but was so high with liquor and chewed so much tobacco that he often called for cold water. Before he had spoken many minutes he turned sick, requested to be excused by the court, and went out of the courthouse, puking all the way down stairs

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(As the Illinoisans call the Missouri people pukes, this circumstance caused considerable amusement to the members of the bar.) During his plea his language was so outrageous that the Judge was twice under the necessity of ordering him to be silent.

"Mr. O. H. Browning then commenced his plea, and in a short time the puking lawyer returned and requested the privilege of finishing his plea, which was allowed.

"Afterwards Mr. Browning resumed his pleadings, which were powerful; and when he gave a recitation of what he himself had seen at Quincy and on the banks of the Mississippi River, when the saints were 'exterminated from Missouri,' where he tracked the persecuted women and children by their bloody footmarks in the snow, they were so affecting that the spectators were often dissolved in tears. Judge Douglas himself and most of the officers wept, for they were under the necessity of keeping the spectators company.

"Elder Amasa Lyman during the evening preached a brilliant discourse in the courthouse, on the first principles of the gospel, which changed the feelings of the people very materially.

"The following letter is from the editor of the Times and Seasons:-

"'American Hotel, MONMOUTH, Warren County,

"'Illinois, June 5,1841, Wednesday evening.

"'We have just returned from the courthouse, where we have listened, to one of the most eloquent speeches ever uttered by mortal man, in favor of justice and liberty, by O. H. Browning, Esq., who has done himself immortal honor in the sight of all patriotic citizens who listened to the same. He occupied the attention of the court for more than two hours, and showed the falsity of the arguments of the opposite counsel, and laid down principles in a lucid and able manner, which ought to guide the court in admitting testimony for the defendant, Joseph Smith. We have heard Mr. Browning on former occasions, when he has frequently delighted his audience by his eloquence; but on this occasion he exceeded our most sanguine expectations. The sentiments

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he advanced were just, generous, and exalted; he soared above the petty quibbles which the opposite counsel urged, and triumphantly, in a manner and eloquence peculiar to himself, avowed himself the friend of humanity, and boldly, nobly, and independently stood up for the rights of those who had waded through seas of oppression and floods of injustice and had sought a shelter in the State of Illinois. It was an effort worthy of a high-minded and honorable gentleman, such as we ever considered him to be since we have had the pleasure of his acquaintance. Soon after we came out of Missouri he sympathized with us in our afflictions, and we are indeed rejoiced to know that he yet maintains the same principles of benevolence. His was not an effort of a lawyer anxious to earn his fee, but the pure and patriotic feelings of Christian benevolence and a sense of justice and of right. While he was answering the monstrous and ridiculous arguments urged by the opposing counsel, that Joseph Smith might go to Missouri and have his trial, he stated the circumstance of our being driven from that State, and feelingly and emphatically pointed out the impossibility of our obtaining justice there. There we were forbidden to enter in consequence of the order of the Executive, and that injustice and cruelties of the most barbarous and atrocious character had been practiced upon us until the streams of Missouri had run with blood; and that he had seen women and children, barefoot and houseless, crossing the Mississippi to seek refuge from ruthless mobs. He concluded his remarks by saying, that to tell us to go to Missouri for a trial was adding insult to injury; and then said: "Great God! Have I not seen it? Yes, my eyes have beheld the blood-stained traces of innocent women and children, in the drear winter, who had traveled hundreds of miles barefoot, through frost and snow, to seek a refuge from their savage pursuers. 'Twas a scene of horror, sufficient to enlist sympathy from an adamantine heart. And shall this unfortunate man, whom their fury has seen proper to select for sacrifice, be driven into such a savage land, and none dare to enlist in the cause of justice? If there was no other voice under heaven ever to be heard in this cause, gladly would I

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stand alone and proudly spend my latest breath in defense of an oppressed American citizen."'

"Thursday morning, 10th. The court was opened about eight o'clock, when Judge Douglas delivered his opinion on the case.

"He said-'That the writ being once returned to the Executive by the Sheriff of Hancock County, was dead, and stood in the same relationship as any other writ which might issue from the Circuit Court; and consequently the defendant could not be held in custody on that writ. The other point, whether evidence in the case was admissible or not, he would not at that time decide, as it involved great and important considerations relative to the future conduct of the different States; there being no precedent, as far as they had access to authorities, to guide them. But he would endeavor to examine the subject, and avail himself of all the authorities which could be obtained on the subject, before he would decide that point. But on the other, the defendant must be liberated.'

"The decision was received with satisfaction by myself and the brethren, and all those whose minds were free from prejudice. It is now decided that before another writ can issue a new demand must be made by the Governor of Missouri. Thus have I once more been delivered from the fangs of my cruel persecutors, for which I thank God, my heavenly Father.

"I was discharged about eleven a. m., when I ordered dinner for my company, now increased to about sixty men; and when I called for the tavern bill, the unconscientious fellow replied, 'Only one hundred and sixty dollars.'

"About two p. m., the company commenced their return, traveled about twenty miles, and camped by the wayside.

"Friday, 11th. Started very early, arrived at La Harpe for dinner, and returned safely to Nauvoo by four p. m., where I was met by the acclamations of the saints."-Millennial Star, vol. 18. pp. 550-553.

An editorial in Times and Seasons agrees with the above.

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