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IN the early part of the year 1840 there was not much done in Nauvoo and vicinity, except the duties incident to preparing homes, preparing for spring farming, and other work; only the regular routine of church business and the preaching of the elders in the regions round about.

The High Council of the church for Iowa met at Montrose on March 6 and among other things passed the two following resolutions:-

"2d. That a committee of three be appointed, consisting of Wheeler Baldwin, Lyman Wight, and Abraham O. Smoot, to obtain affidavits and other documents to be forwarded to the city of Washington.

"3d. That the clerk of this council be directed to inform Judge Higbee, that it is the wish of this council that he should not, upon any consideration, consent to accept of anything of Congress short of our just rights and demands for our losses and damages in Missouri."-Millennial Star, vol. 17, p. 615.

The General Conference convened in Nauvoo, Illinois, April 6, 1840. The first day of the conference the mission to Palestine was considered as follows:-

"Elder Orson Hyde addressed the conference and stated that it had some years previous been prophesied of him,

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that he had a great work to perform among the Jews; and that he had recently been moved upon by the Spirit of the Lord to visit that people and gather up all the information he could from them respecting their movements, expectations, etc., and communicate the same to this church and to this nation at large. Stated that he intended to visit the Jews in New York, London, Amsterdam, and then visit Constantinople and the Holy Land.

"It was then unanimously resolved that Elder Hyde proceed in his mission, and that his letter of recommendation be signed by the president and clerk of the conference.

"Elder John E. Page then rose, and spoke with much force on the object of Elder Hyde's mission, the gathering together of the Jews, and the restoration of the house of Israel; proving in a short but convincing manner from the Bible, Book of Mormon, and the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, that these things must take place and that the time had now nearly arrived for their accomplishment."-Times and Seasons, vol. 1, p. 92.

The resolutions quoted in chapter 19 were passed, as well as other business, of which the following are extracts:-

"The President called upon the clerk to read the report of the Presidency and High Council with regard to their proceedings in purchasing lands and securing a place of gathering for the saints. The report having been read, the President made some observations respecting the pecuniary affairs of the church, and requested the brethren to step forward and assist in liquidating the debts on the town plot, so that the poor might have inheritances. . . .

"Resolved that a committee of three be appointed to investigate the recommendations those persons may have who wish to obtain an ordination to the ministry and to ordain such as may be thought worthy; that Elder Samuel Bent, Joseph Wood, and Orson Hyde compose said committee.

"Resolved, that this meeting feel satisfied with the proceedings of the Presidency with regard to the sales of town property, etc., and that they be requested to continue in their agency. . .

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"He then spoke to the elders respecting their mission, and advised those who went into the world to preach the gospel to leave their families provided for with the necessaries of life, and to teach the gathering as set forth in the Holy Scriptures.

"That it had been wisdom too, for the greater body of the church to keep on this side of the river, in order that a foundation might be established in this place, but that now it was the privilege of the saints to occupy the lands in the Iowa, or wherever the Spirit might lead them.

"That he did not wish to have any political influence, but wished the saints to use their political franchise to the best of their knowledge.

"He then stated that since Elder Hyde had been appointed to visit the Jewish people, he had felt an impression that it would be well for Elder John E. Page to accompany him on his mission.

"It was resolved, that Elder John E. Page be appointed to accompany Elder Orson Hyde on his mission, and that he have proper credentials given him.

"It was then resolved, that as a great part of the time of the conference had been taken up with charges against individuals which might have been settled by the different authorities of the church, that in future no such cases be brought before the conferences.

"The committee on ordination reported that they had ordained thirty one persons to be elders in the church, who were ordained under the hands of Alpheus Gifford and Stephen Perry, which report was accepted.

"F. G. Williams presented himself on the stand and humbly asked forgiveness for his conduct and expressed his determination to do the will of God in future. His case was presented to the conference by President Hyrum Smith, when it was unanimously resolved, that F. G. Williams be forgiven and be received into the fellowship of the church.

"It was reported that seventy-five persons had been baptized during the conference, and that upwards of fifty had been received into the quorum of the seventies."-Times and Seasons, vol. 1, pp. 92, 93, 94, 95.

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April 15 Elder Orson Hyde left Commerce for his mission to Jerusalem, meeting his companion, John E. Page, on the 16th, at Lima, Illinois.

The name of the post office was officially changed from Commerce to Nauvoo, on April 21, 1840, as the following notice and letter will show:-


"Office, 21st April, 1840.

"Sir:-I have the honor to inform you, that the Postmaster General has this day changed the name of the post office at Commerce, Hancock County, Illinois, to 'Nauvoo,' and appointed George W. Robinson postmaster thereof.

"Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


"Second Assistant Postmaster General.

"To the Hon. R. M. Young, U. S. Senate."

"WASHINGTON CITY, April 22, 1840.

"Dear Sir:-After your departure from this city I received, under cover from the Reverend Sidney Rigdon, the petition mentioned by you for the appointment of George W. Robinson as postmaster at Commerce. This petition I laid before the Honorable Robert Johnstone, Second Assistant Postmaster General, who has appointed Mr. Robinson as requested.

"We found on an examination of the papers and a letter from Dr. Galland, that there was a request that the name of the post office should be changed to that of Nauvoo, a Hebrew term, signifying a beautiful place. Mr. Johnstone, at my instance, has changed the name accordingly, in the supposition that it would be agreeable to the citizens concerned. Will you please advise with the Rev. Joseph Smith and others most immediately interested, and if the change of the name to Nauvoo should not be acceptable, it can on application be restored to that of Commerce.

"I received a letter from Malcom McGregor, Esq., postmaster at Carthage, a few days ago, in which he urges the necessity of having the mail carried twice a week between Carthage and Nauvoo, and expresses the opinion that the

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additional expenses would not exceed one hundred and fifty dollars, as the mail is carried on horseback. I have brought the subject before the proper department as requested by Mr. McGregor, and hope to be able to succeed; although the Post Office Department, owing to pecuniary embarrassments, is not in a situation to extend facilities at the present time.

"Please present my respects to Mr. Smith, and accept for yourself my kindest regards.

"Very respectfully, etc.,


"To Judge E. Higbee."

-Millennial Star, vol. 17, p. 743.

In May, 1840, the first number of the Millennial Star was issued from Manchester, England, Parley P. Pratt, editor.

May 27, 1840, Bishop Edward Partridge died at Nauvoo, Illinois. Joseph Smith says of him: "He lost his life in consequence of the Missouri persecutions, and is one of that number whose blood will be required at their hands."

Under date of June 1,1840, Joseph Smith states: "The saints have already erected about two hundred and fifty houses at Nauvoo, mostly blockhouses, a few framed, and many more in lively operation."

June 6, 1840, the first company of saints, numbering forty, emigrating from England to America, sailed from Liverpool for New York under charge of Elder John Moon.

July 3, 1840, the High Council of Nauvoo, at his own request, released Joseph Smith from the responsibility of attending to sale of town lots, attaching by virtue of his being on the committee on location, and appointed E. G. Sherwood as clerk for him. This was made necessary, as he explains, that he might "devote himself exclusively to those things which relate to the spiritualities [spirituality's] of the church." Bishop Alanson Ripley was appointed to see that the necessities of the First Presidency were supplied, including appropriations for clerks. July 4, 1840, the Presidency decided to organize a stake at

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Crooked Creek, Illinois, according to a request from a branch located there.

July 11, Joseph Smith gave the following instruction to the High Council at Nauvoo:-

"Saturday, 11th. The High Council met at my office, when I taught them principles relating to their duty as a council, and that they might be guided by the same in future, I ordered it to be recorded as follows: "That the council should try no case without both parties being present, or having had an opportunity to be present, neither should they hear one party's complaint before his case is brought up for trial; neither should they suffer the character of anyone to be exposed before the High Council without the person being present and ready to defend him or herself; that the minds of the councilors be not prejudiced for or against anyone whose case they may possibly have to act upon."'-Millennial Star, vol. 18, p. 55.

About this time several of the members of the church, among them Alanson Brown, James Allred, Benjamin Boyce, and Noah Rogers, were kidnapped and carried to Missouri, where they were abusively treated. The following affidavit, made by Allred, will illustrate the procedure:-


"Hancock County. }

"This day personally appeared before the undersigned, an acting justice of the peace in and for said county, James Allred, a credible witness, who first being duly sworn according to law, deposes and says, that William Allensworth, John H. Owsly, and William Martin, on the seventh day of July, A. D. 1840, within the limits of the said county of Hancock, aided by several other persons to this affiant unknown, forcibly arrested this affiant and one Noah Rogers, whilst affiant and said Rogers were peaceably pursuing their own lawful business; and that the said Allensworth, Owsly, and Martin, after said arrest, aided by sundry persons to this affiant unknown, did forcibly take, kidnap, and carry this affiant and said Rogers from the said county of Hancock, in the State of Illinois, on the day and year above-mentioned,

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into the State of Missouri, without having established a claim for such procedure according to the laws of the United States.

"Affiant further states that in a short time after he had been so taken into the State of Missouri he was put into a room with said Rogers, and there kept until sometime during the following night, when they were taken out of the room where they were confined, into the woods near by, and this affiant was bound by the persons conducting him to a tree, he having been first forcibly stripped by them of every particle of clothing. Those having him in charge then told affiant that they would whip him, one of them by the name of Monday, saying to this affiant, 'God dam you, I'll cut you to the hollow.' They, however, at last unbound the affiant without whipping him. Affiant states that said Rogers was taken just beyond the place where affiant was bound with a rope about his neck, and he heard a great number of blows which he then supposed, and has since learned, were inflicted upon said Rogers, and heard him cry out several times as if in great agony; after which affiant together with Rogers was taken back and placed in the room from which they were taken, together with one Boyce and Brown, and detained until Monday next succeeding the day on which he was kidnapped; at which time he received from one of the company who had imprisoned him, a passport, of which the following is a copy:-

"TULLY, MO., July 12, 1840.

"The people of Tully, having taken up Mr. Allred, with some others, and having examined into the offenses committed, find nothing to justify his detention any longer, and have released him.

"By order of the committee,


"And then this affiant was permitted to return home into the State of Illinois. This place in Missouri to which affiant and said Rogers were taken he has learned is called Tully, and is situated in the county of Lewis, and at which place [in] Missouri the said Allensworth, Owsly, and Martin are now living.

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"I hereby certify that the foregoing affidavit, was this day subscribed and duly sworn to before me by the said James Allred.


"Justice of the Peace

"July 16, 1840."

-Times and Seasons vol. 1, pp. 141, 142.

A similar statement was also made by Brown.

This was the occasion of a public meeting held in Nauvoo, at which resolutions were passed expressive of their feelings on the subject. The following are the minutes of the meeting:-

"At a meeting of the citizens of Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, 13th July, 1840, Elias Higbee was called to the chair and R. B. Thompson was appointed secretary.

"On motion a committee was appointed to report resolutions expressive of the sense of this meeting, consisting of the following persons; to wit: Isaac Galland, R. B. Thompson, Sidney Rigdon, and D. H. Wells, who retired and after a short absence reported the following preamble and resolutions which were unanimously adopted.


"The committee appointed to express the sense of this meeting in relation to the recent acts of abduction and other deeds of cruelty and inhumanity committed upon our citizens by the citizens of the State of Missouri, beg leave respectfully to report;

"That having under consideration the principal matters involved in the discharge of their duty, they have been forced to arrive at the following conclusion.

"lst, That the people of Missouri not having sufficiently slaked their thirst for blood and plunder, are now disposed to pursue us with a repetition of the same scenes of brutality which marked their whole course of conduct towards us during our unhappy residence among them.

"2dly, That notwithstanding they have already robbed us of our homes-murdered our families, stolen and carried away our property, and to complete the measure of their infamy as a State their Executive caused unoffending thousands

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to be banished from the State, without even the form of a trial, or the slightest evidence of crime,-they are now sending their gangs of murdering banditti and thieving brigands to wreak further vengeance and satisfy their insatiable cupidity in the State of Illinois, and that too before we have even had time to erect shelters for our families.

"3dly, That for the purpose of giving a semblance of justification to their most unhallowed conduct, of the people of Missouri, have again commenced concealing goods within the limits of our settlements, as they had done before in the State of Missouri, in order to raise a charge of stealing against our citizens, and under this guise they have within a few days kidnapped and carried away several honest and worthy citizens of this county.

"4thly, Under these circumstances the first duty and the only redress which seems to offer itself to our consideration is an appeal to the Executive of the State of Illinois for redress, and protection from further injuries, with a confident assurance that he, unlike the Governor of Missouri, will extend the Executive arm to protect from lawless outrage, unoffending citizens.

"Therefore, Resolved first: that we view with no ordinary feelings the approaching danger as a necessary consequence following the lawless and outrageous conduct of the citizens of Missouri in setting at defiance the laws of this as well as all other States of this Union, by forcing from their homes and from the State civil citizens of Illinois, and taking them into the State of Missouri without any legal process whatever, and there inflicting upon them base cruelties in order to extort false confessions from them, to give a coloring to their (the Missourians') iniquities, and screen themselves from the just indignation of an incensed public.

"Resolved secondly, that while we deeply deplore the cause which has brought us together on this occasion, we cannot refrain from expressing our most unqualified disapprobation at the infringement of the laws of this State, as set forth in the above preamble, and strongest indignation at the manner in which the people of Missouri treated those whom they had thus inhumanly taken from among us.

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"Resolved thirdly, that inasmuch as we are conscious of our honest and upright intentions, and are at all times ready and willing to submit to the just requirements of the laws, we claim of the citizens and authorities of this State protection from such unjust and before unheard of oppressions.

"Resolved fourthly, that the forcible abduction of our citizens by the citizens of Missouri is a violation of the laws regulating the federal compact, subversive of the rights of freemen, and contrary to our free institutions and republican principles.

"Resolved fifthly, that the cruelties practiced upon our citizens since their abduction is disgraceful to humanity, the height of injustice and oppression, and would disgrace the annals of the most barbarous nations, in either ancient or modern times, and can only find its parallel in the Auto da fa -the inquisitions in Spain.

"Resolved sixthly, that such unconstitutional and unhallowed proceedings on the part of the citizens of Missouri ought to arouse every patriot to exertion and diligence, to put a stop to such procedure and use all constitutional means to bring the offenders to justice.

"Resolved seventhly, that we memorialize the Executive of this State of the gross outrage which has been committed on our citizens, and pledge ourselves to aid him in such measures as may be deemed necessary to restore our citizens to freedom, and have satisfaction for the wrongs we have suffered.

"ELIAS HIGBEE, Chairman.

"R. B. THOMPSON, Secretary."

-Times and Seasons, vol. 1, pp. 142, 143.

The following petition was sent to Governor Carlin:-

"To His Excellency Governor Carlin:-The undersigned being a committee to draft a memorial to your Excellency relative to the recent outrages, would respectfully represent: That after being driven from our homes and pleasant places of abode, in the State of Missouri, by the authorities of said State, Illinois seemed to be the first shelter or asylum which presented itself to our view; that having left the State of Missouri, your memorialists found an asylum in the

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State of Illinois; and notwithstanding the false reports which were circulated to our prejudice, we were received with kindness by the noble hearted citizens of Illinois; who relieved our necessities, and bade us welcome; for which kindness we feel thankful.

"That under your Excellency's administration we have had every encouragement given us, and have every reason, from the kindness and sympathy which you have ever manifested towards us in our sufferings, to feel confident that your aid will ever be offered to us in common with the rest of the citizens of the State. That feeling ourselves so happy and secure, and beginning again to enjoy the comforts of life, we are sorry to say that our quiet has been disturbed, our fears alarmed, and our families annoyed by the citizens of Missouri; who, with malice and hatred which is characteristic of them, have unconstitutionally sent an armed force and abducted some of our friends; namely, James Allred, Noah Rogers, Alanson Brown, and one Boyce, and carried them into the State of Missouri, and treated them with the greatest barbarity and cruelty; even now their wives and children, as well as their friends, are alarmed for the safety of their lives.

"Therefore we have felt it our duty to place the circumstances of this unheard-of outrage before you, and appeal to your Excellency for protection from such marauders, and take such measures as you may deem proper, that our friends may be again restored to the bosom of their families, and the offenders punished for their crimes.

"We have the greatest confidence in your Excellency, that every constitutional means will be resorted to to restore our friends to the society of their families, etc., that we, in common with other citizens of the State of Illinois, may enjoy all the rights and privileges of freemen.

"Your memorialists have under all circumstances paid the greatest respect to the laws of the country, and if any should break the same they have never felt a disposition to screen such from justice, but when under false pretenses, to gratify and satiate a revengeful disposition; for the citizens of another State, regardless of both the laws of God and

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man, to come and kidnap our friends, to carry off our citizens, to cruelly treat our brethren,-such offenders, we think, should be brought to an account, to be dealt with according to their merit or demerit, that we may enjoy the privileges guaranteed to us by the Constitution of the United States.

"We therefore humbly pray that your Excellency will satisfy yourself of the gross outrage which has been committed on the citizens of the State, and with that energy which is so characteristic of your Excellency's administration, take such steps as you may deem best calculated to repair the injuries which your memorialists have sustained; that you will vindicate the injured laws of the State.

"In conclusion, we beg leave to assure your Excellency that in the discharge of this as well as every other constitutional movement you may rely upon the hearty coöperation of your memorialists, who respectfully submit to your Excellency the accompanying resolutions, which were passed at a large meeting held in this place on this day, and also the affidavit of one of those persons who was kidnapped, but fortunately has made his escape"-Millennial Star, vol. 18, pp. 71, 72.

To show the magnanimous spirit that characterized the church and its President, we here give a letter from one who proved a traitor in an hour of distress, together with the answer.

"DAYTON, Ohio, June 29,1840.

"Brother Joseph:-I am alive, and with the help of God I mean to live still. I am as the prodigal son, though I never doubt or disbelieve the fullness of the gospel. I have been greatly abased and humbled, and I blessed the God of Israel when I lately read your prophetic blessing on my head as follows:-

"'The Lord will chasten him because he taketh honor to himself, and when his soul is greatly humbled he will forsake the evil. Then shall the light of the Lord break upon him as at noonday, and in him shall be no darkness,' etc.

"I have seen the folly of my way, and I tremble at the gulf I have passed. So it is, and why I know not. I prayed

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and God answered, but what could I do? Says I, 'I will repent and live, and ask my old brethren to forgive me, and though they chasten me to death, yet I will die with them, for their God is my God. The least place with them is enough for me, yea it is bigger and better than all Babylon.' Then I dreamed that I was in a large house with many mansions, with you and Hyrum and Sidney, and when it was said, 'Supper must be made ready,' by one of the cooks, I saw no meat, but you said there was plenty, and showed me much, and as good as I ever saw; and while cutting to cook, your heart and mine beat within us, and we took each other's hand and cried for joy, and I awoke and took courage.

"I know my situation, you know it, and God knows it, and I want to be saved if my friends will help me. Like the captain that was cast away on a desert island; when he got off he went to sea again and made his fortune the next time, so let my lot be. I have done wrong, and am sorry. The beam is in my own eye. I have not walked with my friends according to my holy anointing. I ask forgiveness in the name of Jesus Christ of all the saints, for I will do right, God helping me. I want your fellowship; if you cannot grant that, grant me your peace and friendship, for we are brethren, and our communion used to be sweet; and whenever the Lord brings us together again, I will make all the satisfaction on every point that saints or God can require. Amen.


-Millennial Star, vol. 18, p. 6.

"NAUVOO, Hancock County, Illinois, July 22, 1840.

"Dear Brother Phelps:-I must say that it is with no ordinary feelings I endeavor to write a few lines to you in answer to yours of the 29th ultimo; at the same time I am rejoiced at the privilege granted me.

"You may in some measure realize what my feelings, as well as Elder Rigdon's and Brother Hyrum's were when we read your letter - truly our hearts were melted into tenderness and compassion when we ascertained your resolves, etc. I can assure you I feel a disposition to act on your case

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in a manner that will meet the approbation of Jehovah (whose servant I am) and agreeably to the principles of truth and righteousness which have been revealed; and inasmuch as long-suffering, patience, and mercy have ever characterized the dealings of our heavenly Father towards the humble and penitent, I feel disposed to copy the example, cherish the same principles, and by so doing be a savior of my fellow men.

"It is true that we have suffered much in consequence of your behavior-the cup of gall, already full enough for mortals to drink, was indeed filled to overflowing when you turned against us. One with whom we had oft taken sweet counsel together, and enjoyed many refreshing seasons from the Lord-'had it been an enemy, we could have borne it.' 'In the day that thou stoodest on the other side, in the day when strangers carried away captive his forces, and foreigners entered into his gates, and cast lots upon Far West, even thou wast as one of them; but thou shouldest not have looked on the day of thy brother, in the day that he became a stranger, neither shouldest thou have spoken proudly in the day of distress.'

"However, the cup has been drunk, the will of our Father has been done, and we are yet alive, for which we thank the Lord. And having been delivered from the hands of wicked men by the mercy of our God, we say it is your privilege to be delivered from the powers of the adversary, be brought into the liberty of God's dear children, and again take your stand among the saints of the Most High, and by diligence, humility, and love unfeigned, commend yourself to our God, and your God, and to the Church of Jesus Christ.

"Believing your confession to be real, and your repentance genuine, I shall be happy once again to give you the right hand of fellowship and rejoice over the returning prodigal.

"Your letter was read to the saints last Sunday, and an expression of their feeling was taken, when it was unanimously

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"Resolved, that W. W. Phelps should be received into fellowship.

"'Come on, dear brother, since the war is past,

For friends at first, are friends again at last.'

"Yours as ever,


-Millennial Star, vol. 18, p. 85.

About this time Gen. J. C. Bennett, "Quartermaster General of the State of Illinois," began a series of letters of a friendly and complimentary character, which finally resulted in his uniting with the church. He became quite prominent as an officer of the Nauvoo Legion and as mayor of the city, but held no high position of trust in the church. He afterward became disaffected and was expelled from the church, and in 1842 published a Book entitled "Mormonism Exposed." By the church he was accused of gross immorality, and he by way of retaliation accused the leaders of the church with serious wrongdoing. A minute tracing of his career would be unprofitable; nor is he, according to his own testimony, worthy of it. Whatever of wrong or error, if any, may have been committed by Joseph Smith or his colleagues, the evidence of it must rest upon other testimony than that of Mr. Bennett. When a man confesses, as Mr. Bennett did, that at one time in life he was a hypocrite and liar, fair-minded men will discard his testimony, whether favorable to their own views or not. Mr. Bennett has this to say of himself:-

"It at length occurred to me that the surest and speediest way to overthrow the impostor, and expose his iniquity to the world, would be to profess myself a convert to his doctrines, and join him at the seat of his dominion. I felt confident that from my standing in society, and the offices I held under the State of Illinois, I should be received by the Mormons with open arms; and that the course I was resolved to pursue would enable me to get behind the curtain, and behold, at my leisure, the secret wires of the fabric, and like wise those who moved them."-Mormonism Exposed, pp. 6, 7.

Again he says:-

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"The fact that in joining the Mormons I was obliged to make a pretense of belief in their religion does not alter the case. That pretense was unavoidable in the part I was acting, and it should not be condemned like hypocrisy towards a Christian church. For so absurd are the doctrines of the Mormons that I regard them with no more reverence than I would the worship of Manitou or the Great Spirit of the Indians, and feel no more compunction at joining in the former than in the latter, to serve the same useful purpose."-Ibid., p. 9.

A man who will confess to such high-handed hypocrisy, and then say he has no compunction of conscience, is only worthy a passing historical notice, if so much

September 14, 1840, Joseph Smith, Sr., Patriarch of the whole church, died at Nauvoo, Illinois. He was born at Topsfield, Essex County, Massachusetts, on the 12th of July, 1771, and hence was sixty-nine years, two months, and two days old at the time of his death.

His son, Joseph the Prophet, stated of him: "After I and my brother Hyrum were thrown into the Missouri jails by the mob, he fled from under the exterminating order of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs, and made his escape to Quincy, Illinois, whence he removed to Commerce in the spring of 1839. The exposure he suffered brought on consumption, of which he died."

On his deathbed he pronounced blessings on his family, some of which are very peculiar. We invite attention to the promise made to William and Sophronia to live as long as they desired life. Each lived to a good old age and was reconciled to go. The promise of long life to Catharine is peculiar, as she yet lives, and as she attends the general gatherings often and bears faithful testimony, the hearer is reminded of the words: "Then shall she rise up and defend her cause."

In connection with the fact that Joseph's and William's children are identified with the Reorganization, while Hyrum's and Samuel's are in Utah, it is interesting to note that the children of the two former were to be blessed after them, while the children of the two latter are not mentioned.

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The account of this deathbed scene and the blessings, as given by Lucy Smith, the mother of the Prophet and widow of the Patriarch, is as follows:-

"They were all with him, except Catharine, who was detained from coming by a sick husband. Mr. Smith, being apprised of this, sent Arthur Millikin (who, but a short time previous was married to our youngest daughter) after Catharine and her children; but before he went my husband blessed him, fearing that it would be too late when he returned. He took Arthur by the hand, and said:-

"'My son, I have given you my youngest darling child, and will you be kind to her?' 'Yes, father,' he replied, 'I will.' 'Arthur,' he continued, 'you shall be blessed, and you shall be great in the eyes of the Lord; and if you will be faithful, you shalt have all the desires of your heart in righteousness. Now, I want you to go after my daughter Catharine, for I know, that because of the faithfulness of your heart, you will not come back without her.'

"Arthur then left, and my husband then addressed himself to me:-

"'Mother, do you not know that you are the mother of as great a family as ever lived upon the earth. The world loves its own, but it does not love us. It hates us because we are not of the world; therefore all their malice is poured out upon us, and they seek to take away our lives. When I look upon my children and realize that, although they were raised up to do the Lord's work, yet they must pass through scenes of trouble and affliction as long as they live upon the earth; and I dread to leave them surrounded by enemies.' . . .

"He then laid his hands upon Hyrum's head, and said:-

"'My son Hyrum, I seal upon your head your patriarchal blessing, which I placed upon your head before, for that shall be verified. In addition to this, I now give you my dying blessing. You shall have a season of peace, so that you shall have sufficient rest to accomplish the work which God has given you to do. You shall be as firm as the pillars of heaven unto the end of your days. I now seal upon your head the patriarchal power, and you shall bless the people.

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This is my dying blessing upon your head in the name of Jesus. Amen.'

"To Joseph he said:-

"'Joseph, my son, you are called to a high and holy calling. You are even called to do the work of the Lord. Hold out faithful, and you shall be blessed, and your children after you. You shall even live to finish your work.' At this Joseph cried out, weeping, 'Oh! my father, shall I?' 'Yes,' said his father, 'you shall live to lay out the plan of all the work which God has given you to do. This is my dying blessing on your head, in the name of Jesus. I also confirm your former blessing upon your head; for it shall be fulfilled. Even so. Amen.'

"To Samuel he said:-

"'Samuel, you have been a faithful and obedient son. By your faithfulness you have brought many into the church. The Lord has seen your diligence, and you are blessed, in that he has never chastised you, but has called you home to rest; and there is a crown laid up for you, which shall grow brighter and brighter unto the perfect day. When the Lord called you, he said, "Samuel, I have seen thy sufferings, have heard thy cries, and beheld thy faithfulness; thy skirts are clear from the blood of this generation." Because of these things I seal upon your head all the blessings which I have hitherto pronounced upon you; and this is my dying blessing, I now seal upon you. Even So. Amen.'

"To William he said:-

"'William, my son, thou hast been faithful in declaring the word, even before the church was organized. Thou hast been sick, yet thou hast traveled to warn the people. And when thou couldst not walk thou didst sit by the wayside and call upon the Lord, until he provided a way for thee to be carried. Thou wast sick and afflicted, when thou wast away from thy father's house, and no one knew it to assist thee in thy afflictions; but the Lord did see the honesty of thine heart, and thou wast blessed in thy mission. William, thou shalt be blessed, and thy voice shall be heard in distant lands, from place to place, and they shall regard thy teachings. Thou shalt be like a roaring lion in the forest, for

(page 463)


they shall hearken and hear thee. And thou shalt be the means of bringing many sheaves to Zion, and thou shalt be great in the eyes of many, and they shall call thee blessed, and I will bless thee and thy children after thee. And the blessings which I sealed upon thy head before, I now confirm again, and thy days shall be many; thou shalt do a great work, and live as long as thou desirest life. Even so. Amen.'

"To Don Carlos he said:-

"'Carlos, my darling son, when I blessed you your blessing was never written, and I could not get it done, but now I want you to get my book, which contains the blessings of my family. Take your pen and fill out all those parts of your blessing which were not written. You shall have the Spirit of the Lord, and be able to fill up all the vacancies which were left by Oliver when he wrote it. You shall be great in the sight of the Lord, for he sees and knows the integrity of your heart, and you shall be blessed; all that know you shall bless you. Your wife and your children shall also be blessed, and you shall live to fulfill all that the Lord has sent you to do. Even so. Amen.'

"To Sophronia he said:-

"'Sophronia, my oldest daughter, thou hadst sickness when thou wast young, and thy parents did cry over thee to have the Lord spare thy life. Thou didst see trouble and sorrow, but thy troubles shall be lessened, for thou hast been faithful in helping thy Father and thy mother in the work of the Lord. And thou shalt be blessed, and the blessings of heaven shall rest down upon thee. Thy last days shall be thy best. Although thou shalt see trouble, sorrow, and mourning, thou shalt be comforted, and the Lord will lift thee up, and bless thee and thy family, and thou shalt live as long as thou desirest life. This dying blessing I pronounce and seal upon thy head, with thine other blessings. Even so. Amen.'

"After this he rested some time, and then said:-

"'Catharine has been a sorrowful child, trouble has she seen, the Lord has looked down upon her and seen her patience, and has heard her cries. She shall be comforted

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when her days of sorrow are ended; then shall the Lord look down upon her, and she shall have the comforts of life, and the good things of this world; then shall she rise up, and defend her cause. She shall live to raise up her family; and in time her sufferings shall be over, for the day is coming when the patient shall receive their reward. Then she shall rise over her enemies, and shall have horses and land, and things around her to make her heart glad. I, in this dying blessing, confirm her patriarchal blessing upon her head, and she shall receive eternal life. Even so. Amen.'

"To Lucy he said:-

"'Lucy, thou art my youngest child, my darling. And the Lord gave thee unto us to be a comfort and a blessing to us in our old age, therefore, thou must take good care of thy mother. Thou art innocent, and thy heart is right before the Lord. Thou hast been with us through all the persecution; thou hast seen nothing but persecution, sickness, and trouble, except when the Lord hath cheered our hearts. If thou wilt continue faithful thou shalt be blessed with a house and land; thou shalt have food and raiment, and no more be persecuted and driven, as thou hast hitherto been. Now continue faithful, and thou shalt live long and be blessed, and thou shalt receive a reward in heaven. This dying blessing, and also thy patriarchal blessing, I seal upon thy head in the name of Jesus. Even so. Amen.'

"After this he spoke to me again, and said:-

"'Mother, do you not know that you are one of the most singular women in the world?' 'No,' I replied, 'I do not.' 'Well, I do,' he continued, 'you have brought up my children for me by the fireside, and, when I was gone from home, you comforted them. You have brought up all my children, and could always comfort them when I could not. We have often wished that we might both die at the same time, but you must not desire to die when I do, for you must stay to comfort the children when I am gone. So do not mourn, but try to be comforted. Your last days shall be your best days, as to being driven, for you shall have more power over your enemies than you have had. Again I say, be comforted.'

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"He then paused for some time, being exhausted. After which he said, in a tone of surprise, 'I can see and hear, as well as ever I could.' A second pause, of considerable length. 'I see Alvin.' Third pause. 'I shall live seven or eight minutes.' Then straightening himself, he laid his hands together, after which he began to breathe shorter, and in about eight minutes his breath stopped without even a struggle or a sigh, and his spirit took its flight for the regions where the justified ones rest from their labors. He departed so calmly that for some time we could not believe but that he would breathe again.

"Catharine did not arrive until the evening of the second day; still we were compelled to attend to his obsequies the day after his decease, or run the risk of seeing Joseph and Hyrum torn from their father's corpse before it was interred, and carried away by their enemies to prison. After we had deposited his last remains in their narrow house, my sons fled from the city, and I returned to my desolate home; and I then thought that the greatest grief which it was possible for me to feel had fallen upon me in the death of my beloved husband. Although that portion of my life, which lay before me seemed to be a lonesome, trackless waste, yet I did not think that I could possibly find, in traveling over it, a sorrow more searching or a calamity more dreadful than the present. But as I hasten to the end of my story, the reader will be able to form an opinion with regard to the correctness of my conclusion." 1 -Joseph Smith the Prophet and His Progenitors, pp. 285-289.

On September 15,1840, Governor Boggs of Missouri made a requisition on Governor Carlin of Illinois for the arrest of Joseph Smith, Jr., Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight,

1 There is a discrepancy in the date of the ordination of Joseph Smith Sen., as Patriarch of the church. Joseph Smith. Jr.. his son in the body of history states that he was ordained January 21, 1836. See page l6 of this volume, but when his obituary was published in Times and Seasons it was stated that he was ordained December 18, 1833. See page 631 of volume one of this work. This last date is probably a typographical error, as there is no record of his officiating in the office until long after; while frequent mention is made of his officiating after January, 1836,
We think it is safe to say that the date of his ordination was January 21, 1836.

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Parley P. Pratt, Caleb Baldwin, and Alanson Brown, as "fugitives from justice." This demand was complied with by Governor Carlin, and writs issued for their arrest. The sheriff visited Nauvoo for the purpose of making the arrests, but failed to find any of the parties. They were all at the time absent from the city, whether from design or accident does not appear.

If any further effort was made at this time to execute these warrants, we have seen no account of it. This is perhaps the instance spoken of by Governor Ford in his "History of Illinois," but if so he has made a mistake of one year in the time. He states:-

"In the fall of 1841, the governor of Missouri made a demand on Governor Carlin for the arrest and delivery of Joe Smith and several other head Mormons, as fugitives from justice. An executive warrant was issued for that purpose. It was placed in the hands of an agent to be executed; but for some cause, unknown to me, was returned to Governor Carlin without being executed. Soon afterwards the Governor handed the same writ to his agent, who this time succeeded in arresting Joe Smith upon it."-Page 266.

A General Conference was held at Nauvoo beginning October 3,1840. Not much of historical interest was done, but we mention a few items.

R. B. Thompson was appointed church clerk instead of G. W. Robinson, who had removed to Iowa. Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight, and Almon Babbitt were appointed a committee to organize stakes between Nauvoo and Kirtland, Ohio.

It was resolved to build a "house of the Lord" in Nauvoo; and Reynolds Cahoon, Elias Higbee, and Alpheus Cutler were appointed a committee for that purpose.

The report of the First Presidency on the general condition of the church was very encouraging.

The following action was also had:-

"Resolved, that a committee be appointed to draft a bill for the incorporation of the town of Nauvoo, and other purposes."

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"Resolved, that Joseph Smith, Jr., Dr. J. C. Bennett, and R. B. Thompson, compose said committee."

"Resolved, that Dr. J. C. Bennett be appointed delegate to Springfield, to urge the passage of said bill through the legislature."

Elias Higbee and R. B. Thompson were appointed a committee to obtain redress for wrongs sustained in Missouri.

During the month of October the committee appointed at General Conference organized stakes at the following-named places: Lima, Quincy, Mount Hope, in Adams County, and one at Freedom; and on November 1 they organized a stake in Morgan County, Illinois, called Geneva stake.

On December 14, Ebenezer Robinson and D. C. Smith, publishers, dissolved copartnership, Robinson withdrawing, and Smith continuing the Times and Seasons.

On December 16, the charters of the city of Nauvoo, the Nauvoo Legion, and the University of the City of Nauvoo, were signed by the Governor, having previously been passed by the Senate and House by unanimous vote.

The charters read as follows:-

"An act to incorporate the city of Nauvoo.

"Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois represented in the General Assembly, That all that district of country embraced within the following boundaries; to wit: beginning at the northeast corner of section thirty-one, in township seven, north of range eight west of the fourth principal meridian, in the county of Hancock, and running thence west to the northwest corner of said section, thence north to the Mississippi River, thence west to the middle of the main channel of the said river, thence down the middle of said channel to a point due west of the southeast corner of fractional section number twelve, in township six north of range nine west of the fourth principal meridian, thence east to the southeast corner of said section twelve, thence north on the range line between township six north and range eight and nine west, to the southwest corner of

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section six, in township six, north of range eight west, thence east to the southeast corner of said section, thence north to the place of beginning, including the town plats of Commerce and Nauvoo, shall hereafter be called and known by the name of the 'City of Nauvoo,' and the inhabitants thereof are hereby constituted a body corporate and politic by the name aforesaid, and shall have perpetual succession, and may have and use a common seal, which they may change and alter at pleasure.

"Sec. 2. Whenever any tract of land adjoining the 'City of Nauvoo' shall have been laid out into town lots, and duly recorded according to law, the same shall form a part of the 'City of Nauvoo.'

"Sec. 3. The inhabitants of said city, by the name and style aforesaid, shall have power to sue and be sued, to plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended, in all courts of law and equity, and in all actions whatsoever; to purchase, receive, and hold property, real and personal, in said city, to purchase, receive, and hold real property beyond the city for burying grounds, or for other public purposes, for the use of the inhabitants of said city; to sell lease, convey, or dispose of property, real and personal, for the benefit of the city, to improve and protect such property, and to do all other things in relation thereto as natural persons.

"Sec. 4. There shall be a City Council to consist of a mayor, four aldermen, and nine councilors, who shall have the qualifications of electors of said city, and shall be chosen by the qualified voters thereof, and shall hold their offices for two years, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified. The City Council shall judge of the qualifications, elections, and returns, of their own members, and a majority of them shall form a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members under such penalties as may be prescribed by ordinance.

"Sec. 5. The mayor, aldermen, and councilors, before entering upon the duties of their offices shall take and subscribe an oath or affirmation that they will support the Constitution

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of the United States, and of this State, and that they will well and truly perform the duties of their offices to the best of their skill and abilities.

"Sec. 6. On the first Monday of February next, and every two years thereafter, an election shall be held for the election of one mayor, four aldermen, and nine councilors; and at the first election under this act, three judges shall be chosen viva voce by the electors present; and said judges shall choose two clerks, and the judges and clerks before entering upon their duties shall take and subscribe an oath or affirmation such as is now required by law to be taken by judges and clerks of other elections; and at all subsequent elections, the necessary number of judges and clerks shall be appointed by the City Council. At the first election so held the polls shall be opened at nine o'clock a. m., and close at six o'clock p. m.; at the close of the polls the votes shall be counted and a statement thereof proclaimed at the front door of the house at which said election shall be held; and the clerks shall leave with each person elected, or at his usual place of residence, within five days after the election, a written notice of his election, and each person so notified shall within ten days after the election take the oath or affirmation hereinbefore mentioned, a certificate of which oath shall be deposited with the Recorder whose appointment is hereafter provided for, and be by him preserved; and all subsequent elections shall be held, conducted, and returns thereof made as may be provided for by ordinance of the City Council.

"Sec. 7. All free white male inhabitants who are of the age of twenty-one years, who are entitled to vote for State officers, and who shall have been actual residents of said city sixty days next preceding said election shall be entitled to vote for city officers.

"Sec. 8. The City Council shall have authority to levy and collect taxes for city purposes upon all property, real and personal, within the limits of the city, not exceeding one half per cent per annum, upon the assessed value thereof, and may enforce the payment of the same in any manner to

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be provided by ordinance, not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, or of this State.

"Sec. 9. The City Council shall have power to appoint a recorder, treasurer, assessor, marshal, supervisor of streets, and all such other officers as may be necessary, and to prescribe their duties, and remove them from office at pleasure.

"Sec. 10. The City Council shall have power to require of all officers appointed in pursuance of this act, bonds with penalty and security, for the faithful performance of their respective duties, such as may be deemed expedient; and, also, to require all officers appointed as aforesaid to take an oath for the faithful performance of the duties of their respective offices.

"Sec. 11. The City Council shall have power and authority to make, ordain, establish, and execute, all such ordinances, not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, or of this State, as they may deem necessary for the peace, benefit, good order, regulation, convenience, and cleanliness, of said city; for the protection of property therein from destruction by fire, or otherwise, and for the health and happiness thereof; they shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen by death, resignation, or removal, in any of the offices herein made elective; to fix and establish all the fees of the officers of said corporation not herein established; to impose such fines, not exceeding one hundred dollars, for each offense, as they may deem just, for refusing to accept any office in or under the corporation, or for misconduct therein; to divide the city into wards, to add to the number of aldermen and councilors and apportion them among the several wards, as may be most just and conducive to the interest of the city.

"Sec. 12. To license, tax, and regulate auctions, merchants, retailers, grocers, hawkers, peddlers, brokers, pawnbrokers, and money changers.

"Sec. 13. The City Council shall have exclusive power within the city, by ordinance, to license, regulate, and restrain the keeping of ferries; to regulate the police of the city; to impose fines, forfeitures and penalties, for the breach of any ordinance, and provide for the recovery of

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such fines and forfeitures, and the enforcement of such penalties, and to pass such ordinances as may be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers specified in this act; Provided such ordinances are not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, or of this State: and, in fine, to exercise such other legislative powers as are conferred on the City Council of the City of Springfield, by an act entitled 'An act to incorporate the city of Springfield,' approved, February third, one thousand eight hundred and forty.

"Sec. 14. All ordinances passed by the City Council shall within one month after they shall have been passed, be published in some newspaper printed in the city, or certified copies thereof be posted up in three of the most public places in the city.

"Sec. 15. All ordinances of the city may be proven by the seal of the corporation, and when printed or published in book or pamphlet form, purporting to be printed or published by authority of the corporation, the same shall be received in evidence in all courts or places without further proof.

"Sec. l6. The mayor and aldermen shall be conservators of the peace within the limits of said city, and shall have all the powers of justices of the peace therein, both in civil and criminal cases arising under the laws of the State: they shall as justices of the peace, within the limits of said city, perform the same duties, be governed by the same laws, give the same bonds and security, as other justices of the peace, and be commissioned as justices of the peace in and for said city by the Governor.

"Sec. 17. The mayor shall have exclusive jurisdiction in all cases arising under the ordinances of the corporation, and shall issue such process as may be necessary to carry said ordinances into execution and effect; appeals may be had from any decision or judgment of said mayor or aldermen, arising under the city ordinances, to the Municipal Court, under such regulations as may be presented by ordinance; which court shall be composed of the mayor as chief justice, and the aldermen as associate justices, and from the

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final judgment of the Municipal Court, to the Circuit Court of Hancock County, in the same manner as appeals are taken from judgments of justices of the peace; Provided, that the parties litigant shall have a right to a trial by a jury of twelve men, in all cases before the Municipal Court. The Municipal Court shall have power to grant writs of habeas corpus in all cases arising under the ordinances of the City Council.

"Sec. 18. The Municipal Court shall sit on the first Monday of every month, and the City Council at such times and place as may be prescribed by city ordinance; special meetings of which may at any time be called by the mayor or any two aldermen.

"Sec. 19. All process issued by the mayor, aldermen, or Municipal Court, shall be directed to the marshal, and in the execution thereof he shall be governed by the same laws as are, or may be, prescribed for the direction and compensation of constables in similar cases. The marshal shall also perform such other duties as may be required of him under the ordinances of said city, and shall be the principal ministerial officer.

"Sec. 20. It shall be the duty of the recorder to make and keep accurate records of all ordinances made by the City Council, and of all their proceedings in their corporate capacity, which record shall at all times be open to the inspection of the electors of said city, and shall perform such other duties as may be required of him by the ordinances of the City Council, and shall serve as clerk of the Municipal Court.

"Sec. 21. When it shall be necessary to take private property for opening, widening, or altering, any public street, lane, avenue, or alley, the corporation shall make a just compensation therefor to the person whose property is so taken, and if the amount of such compensation cannot be agreed upon, the mayor shall cause the same to be ascertained by a jury of six disinterested freeholders of the city.

"Sec. 22. All jurors empaneled [impaneled] to inquire into the amount of benefits or damages that shall happen to the owners of property, so proposed to be taken, shall first be sworn to

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that effect, and shall return to the Mayor their inquest in writing, signed by each juror.

"Sec. 23. In case the mayor shall at any time be guilty of a palpable omission of duty, or shall willfully and corruptly be guilty of oppression, malconduct, or partiality in the discharge of the duties of his office, he shall be liable to be indicted in the Circuit Court of Hancock County, and on conviction he shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, and the court shall have power on the recommendation of the jury to add to the judgment of the court that he be removed from office.

'See. 24. The City Council may establish and organize an institution of learning within the limits of the city, for the teaching of the arts, sciences, and learned professions, to be called the 'University of the City of Nauvoo,' which institution shall be under the control and management of a Board of Trustees, consisting of a chancellor, registrar, and twenty-three regents, which board shall thereafter be a body corporate and politic with perpetual succession by the name of the 'Chancellor and Regents of the University of the City of Nauvoo,' and shall have full power to pass, ordain, establish, and execute all such laws and ordinances as they may consider necessary for the welfare and prosperity of said university, its officers, and students; Provided, that the said laws and ordinances shall not be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, or of this State; and Provided, also, that the trustees shall at all times be appointed by the City Council, and shall have all the powers and privileges for the advancement of the cause of education which appertain to the trustees of any other college or university of this State.

"Sec. 25. The City Council may organize the inhabitants of said city, subject to military duty, into a body of independent military men to be called the 'Nauvoo Legion,' the court-martial of which shall be composed of the commissioned officers of said legion, and constitute the lawmaking department, with full powers and authority to make, ordain, establish. and execute, all such laws and ordinances as may be considered necessary for the benefit, government, and regulation of said legion; Provided, said court-martial shall

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pass no law or act repugnant to or inconsistent with the Constitution of the United States, or of this State; and Provided, also, that the officers of the legion shall be commissioned by the Governor of the State. The said legion shall perform the same amount of military duty as is now or may be hereafter required of the regular militia of the State, and shall be at the disposal of the mayor in executing the laws and ordinances of the city corporation and the laws of the State, and at the disposal of the Governor for the public defense, and the execution of the laws of the State or of the United States, and shall be entitled to their proportion of the public arms; and Provided, also, that said legion shall be exempt from all other military duty.

"Sec. 26. The inhabitants of the 'City of Nauvoo,' are hereby exempted from working on any road beyond the limits of the city, and for the purpose of keeping the streets, lanes, avenues, and alleys, in repair to require of the male inhabitants of said city, over the age of twenty-one, and under fifty years, to labor on said streets, lanes, avenues, and alleys, not exceeding three days in each year; any person failing to perform such labor when duly noticed by the Supervisor, shall forfeit and pay the sum of one dollar per day for each day so neglected or refused.

"Sec. 27. The City Council shall have power to provide for the punishment of offenders by imprisonment in the county or city jail in all cases when such offenders shall fail or refuse to pay the fines and forfeitures which may be recovered against them.

"Sec. 28. This act is hereby declared to be a public act, and shall take effect on the first Monday of February next.

"WM. L. D. EWING, Speaker of the

House of Representatives.

"S. H. ANDERSON, Speaker of the Senate.

"Approved, Dec. 16,1840.



"Office of Secretary of State. }

"I, Stephen A. Douglass, Secretary of State, do hereby

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certify that the foregoing is a true and perfect copy of the enrolled law now on file in my office.

[L. S.] "Witness my hand, and seal of State, at Springfield, this 18th day of December, A. D. 1840.

"S. A. DOUGLAS Secretary of State.

"The following are the legislative powers alluded to in the 13th section of the foregoing act as pertaining to the City Council of the City of Springfield, and which, consequently, become a part of the charter of the City of Nauvoo; to wit:-


"Sec. 1. The City Council shall have powers and authority to levy and collect taxes upon all property, real and personal, within the city, not exceeding one half per cent per annum upon the assessed value thereof, and may enforce the payment of the same in any manner prescribed by ordinance not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States and of this State.

"Sec. 2. The City Council shall have power to require of all officers appointed in pursuance of this charter, bonds with penalty and security for the faithful performance of their respective duties as may be deemed expedient, and also to require all officers appointed as aforesaid to take an oath for the faithful performance of the duties of their respective offices upon entering upon the discharge of the same.

"Sec. 3. To establish, support, and regulate common schools, to borrow money on the credit of the city: Provided, That no sum or sums of money shall be borrowed at a greater interest than six per cent per annum, nor shall the interest on the aggregate of all the sums borrowed and outstanding ever exceed one half of the city revenue arising for taxes assessed on real property within the corporation.

"Sec. 4. To make regulations to prevent the introduction of contagious diseases into the city, to make quarantine laws for that purpose, and enforce the same.

"Sec. 5. To appropriate and provide for the payment of the debt [and] expenses of the city.

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"Sec. 6. To establish hospitals, and make regulations for the government of the same.

"Sec. 7. To make regulations to secure the general health of the inhabitants, to declare what shall be a nuisance, and to prevent and remove the same.

"Sec. 8. To provide the city with water, to dig wells and erect pumps in the streets for the extinguishment of fires, and convenience of the inhabitants.

"Sec. 9. To open, alter, widen, extend, establish, grade, pave, or otherwise improve and keep in repair streets, avenues, lanes, and alleys.

"Sec. 10. To establish, erect, and keep in repair, bridges.

"Sec. 11. To divide the city into wards, and specify the boundaries thereof, and create additional wards, as the occasion may require.

"Sec. 12. To provide for lighting the streets and erecting lamp posts.

"Sec. 13. To establish, support, and regulate night watches.

"Sec. 14. To erect market houses, establish markets, and market places, and provide for the government and regulation thereof.

"Sec. 15. To provide for erecting all needful buildings for the use of the city.

"Sec. 16. To provide for inclosing [enclosing], improving, [and] regulating all public grounds belonging to the city.

"Sec. 17. To license, tax, [and] regulate auctioneers, merchants and retailers, grocers, taverns, ordinaries, hawkers, peddlers, brokers, pawnbrokers, and money changers.

"Sec. 18. To license, tax, and regulate hacking, carriages, wagons, carts, and drays, and fix the rates to be charged for the carriage of persons, and for the wagonage cartage, and drayage of property.

"Sec. 19. To license and regulate porters and fix the rates of porterage.

"Sec. 20. To license and regulate theatrical and other exhibitions. shows, and amusements.

"Sec. 21. To tax, restrain, prohibit, and suppress, tippling

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houses, dram shops, gaming houses, bawdy and other disorderly houses.

"Sec. 22. To provide for the prevention and extinguishment of fires, and to organize and establish fire companies.

"Sec. 23. To regulate the fixing of chimneys and the fires thereof, and stove pipes.

"Sec. 24. To regulate the storage of gunpowder, tar, pitch, rosin, and other combustible materials.

"Sec 25. To regulate and order parapet walls and partition fences.

"Sec. 26. To establish standard weights and measures, and regulate the weights and measures to be used in the city, in all other cases not provided for by law.

"Sec. 27. To provide for the inspection and measuring of lumber and other building materials: and for the measurement of all kinds of mechanical work.

"Sec. 28. To provide for the inspection and weighing of hay, lime, and stone coal, the measuring of charcoal, firewood, and other fuel, to be sold or used within the city.

"Sec. 29. To provide for and regulate the inspection of tobacco, and of beef, pork, flour, meal, and whisky in barrels.

"Sec. 30. To regulate the weight, quality, and price of bread sold and used in the city.

"Sec. 31. To provide for taking the enumeration of the inhabitants of the city.

"Sec. 32. To regulate the election of city officers, and provide for removing from office any person holding an office created by ordinance.

"Sec. 33. To fix the compensation of all city officers and regulate the fees of jurors, witnesses, and others, for services rendered under this act or any ordinance.

"Sec. 34. To regulate the police of the city, to impose fines, and forfeitures, and penalties, for the breach of any ordinance. and provide for the recovery and appropriation of such fines and forfeitures, and the enforcement of such penalties.

"Sec. 35. The City Council shall have exclusive power within the city, by ordinance, to license, regulate, and suppress

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and restrain billiard tables, and from one to twenty pin alleys, and every other description of gaming or gambling.

"Sec. 86. The City Council shall have power to make all ordinances which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers specified in this act, so that such ordinance be not repugnant to, nor inconsistent with, the Constitution of the United States or of this State.

"Sec. 37. The style of the ordinances of the city shall be: 'Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Springfield.'

"Sec. 38. All ordinances passed by the City Council shall, within one month after they shall have been passed, be published in some newspaper published In the city, and shall not be in force until they shall have been published as aforesaid.

"Sec. 39. All ordinances of the city may be proven by the seal of the corporation, and when printed and published by authority of the corporation, the same shall be received in evidence in all courts and places without further proof."-Times and Seasons, vol. 2, pp. 281-286.

In the bustle incident to the organizing of a city government under the new charter the year closed.

Joseph Smith gives the list of publications for and against the church for the year 1840 as follows:-

"The following is a list of books, pamphlets, and letters published for and against the Latter Day Saints during the past year, so far as have come under my observation:-

"Fourteen numbers of the Times and Seasons have been issued from the office in Nauvoo, containing 224 pages, edited by E. Robinson and Don Carlos Smith, three numbers having been issued during 1839.

"Eight numbers of the Millennial Star have been published at 149 Oldham Road, Manchester, England, containing 216 pages, edited by Elder P. P. Pratt.

"A selection of hymns was published about the first of July, in England, by Brigham Young, John Taylor, and Parley P. Pratt, for the use of the saints in Europe.

"The Rev. Robert Heys, Wesleyan minister, Douglas,

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Isle of Man, published three addresses in pamphlet form, against the Latter Day Saints, which were replied to in the following order:-

"An Answer to some False Statements and Misrepresentations, published by the Rev. Robert Heys, Wesleyan minister, in an address to his society in Douglas, and its vicinity on the subject of Mormonism. By John Taylor, October 7, 1840.

"Calumny Refuted, and the Truth Defended, being a reply to the second address of the Rev. Robert Heys. By John Taylor, Douglas, October 29, 1840.

"Truth Defended and Methodism Weighed in the Balances and Found Wanting; being a reply to the third address of the Rev. Robert Heys against the Latter Day Saints. And also an Exposure of the Principles of Methodism. By John Taylor, Liverpool, December 7,1840.

"The Latter Day Saints and the Book of Mormon; being a few words of warning against the Latter Day Saints, from a minister to his flock. W. J. Morrish, Ledbury, Herefordshire, September.

"A second warning by the same W. J. Morrish, October 15.

"A few more facts relating to the self styled 'Latter Day Saints;' by John Simons, Church of England minister, Dymock, Herefordshire, September 14.

"Several letters written by Mr. J. Curran, and published in the Manx Liberal, Isle of Man, in October, were replied to by Elder John Taylor.

"Mormonism Weighed in the Balances of the Sanctuary and Found Wanting; the substance of four lectures, by Samuel Haining. Published in Douglas, Isle of Man; a tract of 66 pages.

"Interesting Account of several Remarkable Visions, and of the Late Discovery of Ancient American Records, giving an Account of the Commencement of the Work of the Lord in this Generation. By Elder Orson Pratt, Edinburgh, September.

"The Word of the Lord to the Citizens of London, of every sect and denomination; and to every individual into

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whose hands it may fall; shewing forth the plan of salvation, as laid down in the New Testament; namely, Faith in our Lord Jesus Christ-Repentance-Baptism for the remission of sins-and the Gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. Presented by H. C. Kimball and W. Woodruff, Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

"An Exposure of the Errors and Fallacies of the self-named 'Latter Day Saints.' By William Hewitt, of Lane End, Staffordshire Potteries.

"An answer to Mr. William Hewitt's tract against the Latter Day Saints. By Elder Parley P. Pratt.

"Plain Facts; showing the falsehood and folly of the Rev. C. Bush (the Church of England minister, of the parish of Peover, Cheshire); being a reply to his tract against the Latter Day Saints. By Elder Parley P. Pratt.

"A few remarks by way of reply to an anonymous scribbler, calling himself 'a philanthropist,' disabusing the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, of the slanders and falsehoods which he has attempted to fasten upon it. By Samuel Bennett, Philadelphia.

"Mormonism Unmasked, and Mr. Bennett's reply answered and refuted. By a philanthropist of Chester County. Published in Philadelphia.

"An appeal to the American People; being an account of the persecutions of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and of the barbarities inflicted on them by the inhabitants of the State of Missouri.

"A reply to Mr. Thomas Taylor's pamphlet, entitled, 'Complete Failure,' etc., and also to Mr. Richard Livesey's tract, 'Mormonism Exposed.' By Parley P. Pratt.

"The editor of the London Dispatch, published an article on November 8, against the Latter Day Saints, containing some of the false statements of Captain D. L. St. Clair, in his tract against them, which was replied to by Elder Parley P. Pratt, in the November number of the Millennial Star.

"The Millennium, and other Poems:' to which is annexed, 'A Treatise on the Regeneration and Eternal Duration of Matter.' By P. P. Pratt, New York."-Millennial Star, vol. 18, pp. 299, 300

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